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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Carbon Atoms > Alkyl   Michael Charnine

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    This Review contains major "Alkyl"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.


  1. Alkyl is a hydrocarbon radical derived from alkanes (C n H 2n+ 2) by removal of one hydrogen atom.
  2. Alkyl is intended to include linear, branched, or cyclic hydrocarbon structures and combinations thereof.
  3. An alkyl is a functional group of an organic chemical that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, which are arranged in a chain. (Web site)
  4. An alkyl is a univalent (or free) radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain.
  5. Haloalkyl is an alkyl group as defined above which is partially or fully halogenated by one or more halogen atoms, in particular by fluorine and chlorine. (Web site)

Alkyl Esters

  1. Alkyl nitrites are chemical compounds of structure R-ONO. Formally they are alkyl esters of nitrous acid. (Web site)
  2. Preferred moieties are amino acid esters including valyl, and alkyl esters including acetyl. (Web site)


  1. A ketal is a functional group or molecule containing a carbon bonded to two -OR groups, where O is oxygen and R represents any alkyl group.
  2. The 2-yl indicates that the hydrogen of the alkyl group has been removed from carbon 2 of the substituent. (Web site)
  3. For the alkyl group to show good antiozonant activity, the carbon attached to the nitrogen must have one and only one hydrogen atom, i.


  1. The total number of heteroatoms and carbons in a donor group may be about 30, and the donor group may be substituted further with alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl. (Web site)
  2. The alkyl chains within egg lecithin are generally from 16 to 18 carbons and have an average of 1 double bond per chain 18.
  3. Alkyl groups are classified according to the number of carbons attached to the carbon that joins the alkyl group to the molecule.


  1. As used herein, "alkoxy" and "alkylthio" refer to RO-- and RS--, in which R is alkyl, preferably lower alkyl.
  2. Alkoxy and alkylthio represent alkyl groups linked by an oxygen atom or a sulphur atom respectively, with the alkyl portion being as defined above. (Web site)
  3. The term "alkylthio" refers to an alkyl group, as defined above, having a sulfur radical attached thereto.


  1. Hence, the definition of "alkyl" applies to "alkyl" as well as the "alkyl" portions of "hydroxyalkyl," "haloalkyl," "alkoxy," etc. (Web site)
  2. Suitable inert substituents include lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, halo, haloalkyl, nitro and cyano. (Web site)
  3. In the above Formula (1), R is preferably C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 haloalkyl. (Web site)

Primary Amines

  1. Primary amines arise when one of three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an alkyl.
  2. Primary amines can be synthesized from ammonia and alkyl halides by the Gabriel Synthesis or from azides by the Staudinger reduction.
  3. Potassium phthalimide is a - NH 2 -synthon which allows the preparation of primary amines by reaction with alkyl halides.

Nitrogen Atom

  1. As alkyl or alkenyl groups on the nitrogen atom, several straight chain or branched chain groups having 1 to 5 carbon atoms are included. (Web site)
  2. Secondary amines have a pair of alkyl or aromatic groups, and a hydrogen, attached to a nitrogen atom. (Web site)
  3. These are the amines in which the nitrogen atom is adjacent to a tertiary alkyl group. (Web site)

Aromatic Compounds

  1. The oxidation reactions of alkyl substituted aromatic compounds to their aromatic acid counterparts are well-known and industrially important reactions. (Web site)
  2. This invention relates to a process for the electrochemical oxidation of alkyl substituted aromatic compounds. (Web site)
  3. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a process for the electrochemical oxidation of alkyl substituted aromatic compounds. (Web site)

Six Carbon Atoms

  1. The term "C 1. -C6, alkyl" represents a straight or branched alkyl chain having from one to six carbon atoms.
  2. Lower Alkyl refers to an alkyl with one to six carbon atoms.
  3. The alkyl and lower alkyl groups of R 1 and R 2 contain up to six carbon atoms. (Web site)


  1. The structures can include alkyl, alkenyl, or aryl moieties, as well as additional functional groups such as alcohols, amines, amides, esters, or ethers.
  2. R 2=alcohol,alkyl, acetals, phosphonates, Halogens, amines, amides, thiols, etc. (Web site)
  3. The carboxylic acid amides mainly contain 2-20 carbon atoms and can contain a second substitute in the.alpha.-position, for example an alkyl group. (Web site)


  1. Examples of inert ring substituents include the halogens, and the nitro, ester, hydroxy, alkoxy, and alkyl groups. (Web site)
  2. The alkyl part of the (cycloalkyl)alkyl is further optionally substituted with one or two groups independently selected from hydroxy and --NR.sup.cR.sup.d. (Web site)
  3. Typical examples of substituents in said alkyl groups are halogen, hydroxy and amino. (Web site)

Aralkyl Groups

  1. More specifically, the alkyl groups and aralkyl groups which may be used are those described previously. (Web site)


  1. An "alkylaryl" or an "aralkyl" moiety is an alkyl substituted with an aryl (e.g., phenylmethyl (benzyl)). (Web site)
  2. Preferably E 1 is benzyl, benzyl substituted on the phenyl ring by alkyl of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, α-methylbenzyl or 1-naphthylmethyl. (Web site)
  3. Further, the bridging group can be unsubstituted or substituted with C.sub.1-C.sub.20 alkyl, alkenyl, benzyl and aryl radicals.


  1. Thus, the term C 1 -C 6 alkyl, as used herein, indicates an alkyl group having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms. (Web site)
  2. The term "C 1 to C 10 alkoxy" as used herein denotes groups of the formula OR 7 wherein R 7 is hydrogen or alkyl. (Web site)
  3. As used herein, the term hydrocarbyl groups means groups made up of carbon and hydrogen, such as alkyl, alkenyl and the like. (Web site)


  1. Aliphatic refers herein to straight- and branched-, and saturated and unsaturated, hydrocarbon chains, that is, alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl.
  2. It is understood that aliphatic groups may be used in place of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkylene, alkenylene, and alkynylene groups described herein. (Web site)
  3. In each aspect of the invention, it is often preferable that any alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or alkylene radical have less than 6 carbon atoms. (Web site)


  1. Examples of such substituents include halo, hydroxy, and alkyl. (Web site)
  2. The term "aryloxyl" as used herein can refer to phenyloxyl or hexyloxyl, and alkyl, substituted alkyl, halo, or alkoxyl substituted phenyloxyl or hexyloxyl. (Web site)
  3. C 1-2) alkyl (which alkyl group is optionally substituted as hereinbefore defined, for example by one or more halo (e.g. (Web site)

Combinations Thereof

  1. The compounds can be unsubstituted or substituted with a halo, alkyl, alkoxy, or combinations thereof. (Web site)
  2. The alkyl can be linear, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof and typically has 1 to 20 carbon atoms. (Web site)
  3. W can be unsubstituted or substituted with an alkyl, aryl, halo, or combinations thereof.

Suitable Substituents

  1. Suitable substituents include alkyl, alkoxy, halo, or acylamino functionalities. (Web site)
  2. Suitable substituents include alkyl,alkyloxy, alkenyl and alkenyloxy, each of which may be carried by either a bridgehead or a non-bridgehead carbon atom. (Web site)
  3. Suitable substituents for a cycloalkyl are defined above for an alkyl. (Web site)


  1. Suitable substituents include chloro, bromo, nitro, cyano, alkyl, aryl, aryloxy, alkoxy and the like. (Web site)
  2. R.sub.1-4 can themselves besubstituted with nonreactive substituents such as halo, nitro, cyano, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, aryloxy groups and the like. (Web site)
  3. The deactivating groups include, nitro, halide, cyano, carboxyl and sulfonic groups, while the weakly activating groups include alkyl and aryl groups. (Web site)


  1. Examples of alkyl of one to 7 carbon atoms, inclusive, are, in addition, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and isomeric forms thereof. (Web site)
  2. Examples of the alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, and t-butyl groups. (Web site)
  3. Examples of alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, pentyl, decyl, and hexadecyl, etc. (Web site)


  1. Examples of alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, n-heptyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, ethylcyclopentyl, and cyclohexyl. (Web site)
  2. Examples of alkyl lithium reagents include methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, t-butyl and n-pentyl lithium. (Web site)
  3. Examples of preferred alkyl groups are in particular methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl and t-butyl. (Web site)


  1. Chemically, most biodiesel consists of alkyl (usually methyl) esters instead of the alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum derived diesel.
  2. Chemically, most biodiesel consists of alkyl (usually methyl) ester s instead of the alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum derived diesel.
  3. The term "alkyl" refers to a functional group (or substituent) that is derived from the alkanes by the removal of a hydrogen atom. (Web site)


  1. The chlorine free radical will bond with a hydrogen from an alkane, forming hydrochloric acid and leaving an alkyl.
  2. The general term for an alkane which functions as a substituent is alkyl.
  3. In yet another specific embodiment the alkyl halide is sec-butyl chloride or tert-butyl chloride, the alkene is a butene, and the alkane is isobutane. (Web site)


  1. Y.sub.3 and Y.sub.4 are preferably chlorine or alkoxy or alkyl having 1 to 5 carbon atoms (especially methyl or methoxy). (Web site)
  2. The substituent groups may include alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkaryl, hydroxy, methoxy, chloro, bromo, and nitro groups. (Web site)
  3. In a preferred series of compounds, R 1 is an alkoxy group, preferably methoxy or ethoxy, and R 2 is an alkoxy or alkyl group. (Web site)

Alkoxy Group

  1. The term "[(alkoxy)alkoxy]alkyl" refers to an alkoxy group appended to an alkoxy group which is pended to a loweralkyl radical. (Web site)
  2. In formula (I), R is an alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms. (Web site)
  3. In one embodiment, the thiophene is a 3-substituted thiophene, wherein the substituent is an alkyl, alkylthio, alkylsilyl, or alkoxy group. (Web site)

Alkoxy Groups

  1. The alkyl and alkoxy groups in the foregoing list may be linear or branched and preferably have from one to six carbon atoms. (Web site)
  2. It is preferred that R 1 and R 2 be alkyl or alkoxy groups. (Web site)
  3. Nitro, amidino, guanidio, and amino that may bemono- or di-substituted by alkyl, acyl, etc., among others may substitute such alkoxy groups, for example. (Web site)

Halogen Atoms

  1. The preferred optional substituents are halogen atoms, and nitro, hydroxy, alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy and carboxy groups. (Web site)
  2. A can be substituted by halogen atoms or NO.sub.2, CN, alkyl or alkoxy groups. (Web site)
  3. Alkyl halides, or haloalkanes, are alkanes in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine). (Web site)


  1. Especially versatile methods included the addition of halogens to alkenes, hydrohalogenation of alkenes, and the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides. (Web site)
  2. Prepare alkyl halides through the addition of HX. Prepare alkyl halides through addition of halogens to alkenes and alkynes. (Web site)
  3. Especially versatile methods included the addition of halogens to alkenes, hydrohalogenation of alkenes, and the conversion of alcohol s to alkyl halides.


  1. The alkyl represents one of the alkyl groups which is bonded to a halogen and the halide represents the halogen. (Web site)
  2. The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compound s derived from alkane s containing one or more halogen s.
  3. Y is preferably phenyl or phenyl which is substituted by halogen, trifluoromethyl, cyano, lower alkyl or lower alkoxy. (Web site)


  1. Specific examples of heteroaromatic ring substituents include: halo, cyano, alkyl, heteroalkyl, haloalkyl, phenyl, phenoxy or any combination thereof. (Web site)
  2. Such acceptable substitutents include, for example, phenyl, halogen, ester, nitro, cyano, alkyl and the like. (Web site)
  3. R 11 is alkyl, aryl or arylalkyl, preferably, (C1-C8)alkyl, phenyl and phenyl(C1-C4)alkyl. (Web site)


  1. Examples of lower alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec- and tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and the like. (Web site)
  2. For example, alkyl radicals include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, t-butyl, pentyl and the like. (Web site)
  3. Representative alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl isomers thereof and the like.

Unsubstituted Alkyl

  1. R.sub.1 may be hydrogen, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl or allyl group, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, alkaryl group, or aralkyl group. (Web site)
  2. R.sup.1 can be a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl as described. (Web site)
  3. The phrase "unsubstituted alkyl" refers to alkyl groups that do not contain groups other than fully saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals. (Web site)


  1. Similarly, when alkyl or lower alkyl is a suitable moiety, unsubstituted alkyl or lower alkyl is preferred. (Web site)
  2. R 10 and R 11 are independently hydrogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, or heterocyclyl group as defined herein. (Web site)
  3. The term substituted or unsubstituted alkyl is intended to encompass alkoxy, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, etc.

Alkynyl Group

  1. By "alkoxy," as used herein, is meant an alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl group as described above attached via an oxygen bridge. (Web site)
  2. These substituents may be attached to any carbon of an alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl group provided that the attachment constitutes a stable chemical moiety.
  3. Similarly "alkylthio" refers to an alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl group as described above attached via a sulfur bridge. (Web site)

Alkynyl Groups

  1. The term includes "alkaminocarboxy" groups which include alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl groups bound to an amino group bound to a carboxy group. (Web site)
  2. Such groups include alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl groups of appropriate lengths, and preferably are alkyl, e.g. (Web site)
  3. Alkanoyl groups according to the invention are alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl groups attached through a carbonyl group.

Alkyl Substituent

  1. The term "unsubstituted heteroaralkyl group," as used herein, indicates the heteroaryl group having an alkyl substituent.
  2. What follows is a 1,2-rearrangement when an alkyl substituent on the anionic boron migrates to the adjacent electrophilic carbon of the carbonyl group. (Web site)
  3. The alkyl substituent in such compounds may be derived, for example, from polymerized propylene, diisobutylene, octene, and nonene. (Web site)


  1. R 2 in the formula is a C 1 -C 4 alkyl substituent such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, 2-butyl, and isobutyl. (Web site)
  2. The alkyl substituent is not reactive, but the ON=O group behaves as other nitrites. (Web site)
  3. The term “(C 1 -C 6)alkyl-substituted aryl” refers to an aryl having one or more of its hydrogens replaced with a (C 1 -C 6)alkyl substituent. (Web site)


  1. The term "sulfinyl" represents --SO--L.sub.5, wherein L.sub.5 is preferably alkyl, amino, aryl, cycloalkyl or heterocycle. (Web site)
  2. Examples of substituents for heterocycle and cycloalkyl include those listed above for alkyl and aryl, as well as aryl and alkyl.
  3. The number of substituents on the above alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl or alkoxy group may range from 1 to 6, preferably 1 to 3. (Web site)


  1. These hindering R groups may be alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, etc. (Web site)
  2. The group R may thus for example be alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, or substituted versions of these groups.
  3. R is generally an alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, aryl, ether, thioether or ester group, which is optionally substituted as described above. (Web site)


  1. Examples of cycloalkyl group substituents include one or more alkyl groups as described above, or one or more groups described above as alkyl substituents. (Web site)
  2. Hydroxy, halo, and alkyl substituents are preferred.
  3. Secondary amines have two alkyl substituents bound to N together with one hydrogen. (Web site)

Aryl Groups

  1. Structurally amines resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents such as alkyl and aryl groups.
  2. Amines are considered as organic derivatives of ammonia obtained by replacing one, two, or all the three hydrogen atoms of ammonia by alkyl or aryl groups. (Web site)
  3. The hydrocarbon radicals can be alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or substituted aryl groups.


  1. Where it is noted above that the alkyl substituent is further substituted, it will be substituted with halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, aryl or aralkyl. (Web site)
  2. The substituent may be further substituted by halo, hydroxy, alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, substituted aryl, substituted alkyl or aralkyl.
  3. The alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, aralkyl and phenoxy groups may have a substituent or substituents. (Web site)


  1. The substituents which may be present on the hydrazine include alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkaryl, and the like.
  2. Therefore, substituted aryl, heterocyclyl and heteroaryl groups may also be substituted with alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups as defined herein. (Web site)
  3. Alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl are intended to include linear, branched, and cyclic structures and combinations thereof. (Web site)

Aryl Group

  1. Amines are derivative s of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group.
  2. Aralkyl means herein an alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl group substituted with an aryl group, wherein aryl is as defined hereinbefore.
  3. The substituent is preferably an aryl group such a phenyl group, heteroaryl group such as a pyridyl group, or an alkyl group such as a methyl group.


  1. More specifically, examples of said groups are alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl or the like. (Web site)
  2. Suitable substituents on the aryl groups are halogen atoms and alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, trihalomethyl, cyano, dialkylamino and alkanoyloxy groups.
  3. Preferred aryl group substituents include halo, hydroxy, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, trihalomethyl, cyano, nitro, and alkylmercaptyl. (Web site)


  1. Various other alkyl, branched alkyl, cycloalkyl and aryl substituted malonic esters fitting within the above formula may also be utilized. (Web site)
  2. Exemplary R 3 groups include linear and branched alkyl, aminoalkyl, alkenyl, allyl, and alkynyl groups, for example. (Web site)
  3. As used herein, the term "alkyl" refers to a monovalent radical of an alkane and includes groups that are linear, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof. (Web site)


  1. Carbon Atoms
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Society > Military > Groups
  3. Methyl
  4. Preferred
  5. Amine


Lower Alkyl
Alkyl Group

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