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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Allele > Alleles   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
EXCHANGE
FITNESS
HETEROZYGOUS
PYLORI STRAINS
INTEINS
NON-ADDITIVE EFFECTS
VACUOLATING CYTOTOXIN ALLELES
WILD TYPE ALLELE
FMR1 ALLELES
DOMINANT ALLELES
DONOR ALLELES
NULL ALLELES
VACA ALLELES
PRESENCE
MECHANISM
SEQUENCE
EXCESS
DISTRIBUTION
PRESENT
SIMILAR
INDIVIDUALS
INDIVIDUAL
MEASURE
VARIABILITY
ANALYSIS
IDENTIFICATION
POPULATIONS
PARENT
EFFECT
COMBINATION
ORGANISM
ORGANISMS
VARIATION
ASSOCIATION
IDENTICAL
OFFSPRING
DRIFT
DNA
PCR
ADDITION
HIGH FREQUENCY
CELLS
ZYGOTE
C282Y
NUMBER
DIFFERENT FORMS
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Alleles"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Alleles are added to the gene pool by mutation at the same rate they are lost to drift.
  2. Alleles were identified unambiguously from the isolated DNA. The particular alleles isolated are set out in the following Table.
  3. Alleles are different versions of the same gene.
  4. Alleles were separated on 3-6% MetaPhor agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide, and visualized by ultraviolet (UV) illumination.
  5. Such alleles are particularly useful when a null allele in the same gene causes a disruptive phenotype prior to the stage of development of interest.

Exchange

  1. In contrast to many higher eukaryotes, bacteria have no sexual life cycles to facilitate the exchange of alleles within a population.

Fitness

  1. In turn fitness will convey differential evolutionary advantage upon different alleles.

Heterozygous

  1. When duplications (partial diploids) are heterozygous for het one or more alleles, growth is inhibited and highly abnormal.

Pylori Strains

  1. Therefore, the detection of both alleles in a single gastric specimen implies that the host is colonized by multiple H. pylori strains.

Inteins

  1. Indeed, some of these latter inteins are alleles of, and closely related to, inteins found in prokaryotes.

Non-Additive Effects

  1. Dominance variance: The component of genetic variance due to non-additive effects of alleles at the same locus (Cockerham, 1954).

Vacuolating Cytotoxin Alleles

  1. Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori: association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration.

Wild Type Allele

  1. The two alleles may be different mutants or a wild type allele paired with a recessive mutant or a dominant mutant or a codominant mutant.

Fmr1 Alleles

  1. Screen for expanded FMR1 alleles in patients with essential tremor.

Dominant Alleles

  1. Udny Yule (1902) argued against Mendelism because he thought that dominant alleles would increase in the population.

Donor Alleles

  1. At our institution, two informative loci are routinely used for detection of recipient and donor alleles.

Null Alleles

  1. These mutations tend to cause null alleles and those can be useful to understand the function of genes; however, they can cause lethal phenotypes.
  2. Alternatively, the technique can be used to create null alleles so that the gene is not functional.

Vaca Alleles

  1. Correlation of the frequency of some vacA alleles and cagA positivity with age was recently reported by Alarcon et al.

Presence

  1. Genetic analysis of healthy individuals confirmed the expected presence of two copies, or alleles, of the gene for osteoprotegerin.

Mechanism

  1. Thus, a major mechanism by which InaD 1, su(1) and su(100) suppress rdgA 1 is likely to involve the reduced levels of NORPA in these alleles.
  2. When applied to a gel, the tertiary shape will determine the mobility of the ssDNA, providing a mechanism to differentiate between SNP alleles.

Sequence

  1. Yet, though the alleles of a gene differ in sequence, nevertheless they are regarded as a single gene (occupying a single locus).

Excess

  1. Tajima's D test searches for an excess of rare alleles and is sensitive to positive or negative selection.

Distribution

  1. It should be noted that distribution of the vacA alleles is different in various ethnopopulations.

Present

  1. In opposition to autosomal dominant trait, a recessive trait only becomes phenotypically apparent when two copies of a gene (two alleles) are present.

Similar

  1. For the idi-6 (psp) genes two alleles are present, both very similar with very few substitutions.
  2. The distribution of vacA, cagA and iceA alleles in H. pylori strains in Hong Kong is similar to that in east Asia.

Individuals

  1. Increasing the sample sizes up to 200 or 500 individuals does not diminish the discrepancy, especially for a high number of alleles (data not shown).
  2. HLA alleles have been determined in individuals from the Republic of Macedonia by DNA typing and sequencing.

Individual

  1. Marker data were generated at a single QTL locus with possible alleles q and Q, thus assigning an individual the genotypes qq or Qq with equal probability.

Measure

  1. The amount of gene product is used to measure how active a gene is; abnormal amounts can be correlated with disease-causing alleles.

Variability

  1. The distribution of alleles is uneven amongst ethnic groups; see also CYP2D6 - Ethnic factors in variability.

Analysis

  1. These inconsistencies may be due to differences in the mutant alleles used for each analysis.

Identification

  1. Identification and functional characterization of 2 variant alleles of the telomerase RNA template gene (TERC) in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita.
  2. For the identification of donor alleles, D3S1358 and D18S51 were chosen as the informative loci.

Populations

  1. It is intriguing that a significant fraction of inferred selected alleles are found in most of the examined populations (Fig.

Parent

  1. For example, alleles A and Bwill be transmitted from a parent with genotype AB to their children with equal probability.

Effect

  1. However, if such genes do invade, they may have much less effect than would be predicted from a model where the population was monomorphic for those alleles.
  2. This has no effect if the alleles on the chromatids are the same, but results in reassortment of otherwise linked alleles if they are different.
  3. Effect of matching of class I HLA alleles on clinical outcome after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from an unrelated donor.

Combination

  1. In the Canadian and U.S. isolates, there was no high correlation between the PFGE type and the combination of ptxS1 and prn alleles (3, 22).

Organism

  1. But any given organism has only two alleles at the most.

Organisms

  1. There can be more than two alleles of a gene in a population of organisms.
  2. The more closely related two organisms are causes the incidences of altruism to increase because they share many of the same alleles.

Variation

  1. The low estimates of C OS relative to C SS indicate that, if variation is attributable to rare alleles, these alleles must be fairly recessive on average.
  2. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type.

Association

  1. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with response to immunosuppressive therapy in Korean aplastic anemia patients.
  2. In regard to the association of iceA alleles with gastroduodenal diseases, our results are distinct from those reported by Peek et al.
  3. The association of HLA-DR alleles and T cell activation with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

Identical

  1. Homozygote An organism that has two identical alleles of a gene.
  2. Duplexes from identical alleles have the same mobility in the gel.
  3. The "model" is confounded both by lack of identical (or even similar) biological properties of alleles and by lack of overall genetic variation.

Offspring

  1. In the case of diploid organisms, the offspring receive (on average) 50% of their alleles from each parent.
  2. When a pair of organisms reproduce sexually, their offspring randomly inherit one of the two alleles from each parent.

Drift

  1. Through drift, these new alleles may become more common within the population.

Dna

  1. Hypervariable An area on the DNA which can have many different alleles in differing sequences.

Pcr

  1. The analysis of VNTR alleles continues, but is now usually performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.
  2. Tetra-primer ARMS-PCR employs two pairs of primers to amplify two alleles in one PCR reaction.
  3. The vacA alleles and cagA genotypes were determined by PCR. The vacA sl allele was present in 107 of the 137 subjects (78%).

Addition

  1. In addition, with the exception of two alleles, mutant ascospores, obtained from heterozygous crosses, do not ripen and exhibit a low germination level.
  2. In addition, several loci were evaluated that demonstrated alleles that were of neither patient nor donor origin (Figure 1D, red arrows).

High Frequency

  1. Fay and Wu's H statistic tests for an excess of high frequency derived alleles, which is a signature of a selective sweep.
  2. A high frequency of occurrence of null alleles (lack of enzyme activity) was identified and warrants further investigation at the molecular level.

Cells

  1. The dikaryon formed exhibits filamentous growth if the cells also carry any two different b alleles.

Zygote

  1. Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).
  2. Identical alleles may have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.

C282Y

  1. The HFE gene has two common alleles, C282Y and H63D.[27] Heterozygotes for either allele do not manifest clinical iron accumulation.

Number

  1. The frequencies of a number of alleles for virulence factors were also studied.
  2. Likewise, although the number of inferred selected alleles uncovered in this study is large (Fig.
  3. Our regression model could be a good predictor for the number of rare alleles in natural populations.

Different Forms

  1. Different forms of a gene, which may give rise to different phenotypes, are known as alleles.
  2. A particular gene can have multiple different forms, or alleles, which are defined by different sequences of DNA.

Categories

  1. Allele
  2. Loci
  3. Locus
  4. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Life > Gene
  5. Frequencies

Related Keywords

    * Allele * Apolipoprotein * Associated * Cases * Cftr Gene * Chromosome * Chromosomes * Deleterious * Different * Different Alleles * Dna Sequence * Dna Sequences * Frequencies * Frequency * Gene * Genes * Genetic Drift * Genetic Linkage * Genetic Variation * Gene Pool * Genotype * Haplotypes * Heteroduplexes * Hla Class * Linkage Disequilibrium * Loci * Locus * Loss-Of-Function Mutations * Mutants * Mutation * Mutations * Patients * Pertactin * Phenotype * Phenotypes * Population * Recombination * Result * Risk * Sample * Trait * Traits * Wild Type
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  Originally created: April 04, 2011.
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