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  1. Atomic is an award-winning studio that mixes real-life scenarios with unique, proprietary technology to create innovative game experiences.
  2. Atomic is a registered trademark of Atomic Games.
  3. Atomic is one of the leaders in the Junior Ski Racing market, and all of their models comply with FIS equipment regulations.


  1. Unit for mass of atom is referred to as atomic mass unit (amu) Standardized against atomic mass of 12C - as 12 amu i.e.
  2. Scientists have now adopted a unit known as the atomic mass unit for atomic masses.

Atomic Structure

  1. His discovery of electrons, which he initially called corpuscles, played a pivotal role in revolutionizing knowledge of atomic structure.
  2. Crystalline solids have a very regular atomic structure: that is, the local positions of atoms with respect to each other are repeated at the atomic scale.
  3. The atomic structure is, in turn, determined by the electrons and which shells, subshells and orbitals they reside in.


  1. Only when one comprehends the atomic structure of matter is it possible to move on to the chemical elements that are the most basic materials of chemistry.
  2. Rectangular arrangement of elements puts constraints in describing the properties of the elements such as shape, atomic structure, nucleus, etc.
  3. Atomic structure, chemical and physical properties, and table of nuclides.


  1. A laboratory course with experiments in atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, and elementary particle physics.
  2. Includes many experiments of modern physics, including atomic physics, solid state physics, electron diffraction, radioactivity, and quantum effects.
  3. Certain experiments could then be explained by atomic theory, but other experiments could not, and this is the way it will always be.


  1. One mole of a substance always weighs exactly the atomic or molecular weight of that substance, expressed in grams.
  2. Elements: An element is a substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number.
  3. The molecular weight may be calculated from the molecular formula of the substance; it is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms making up the molecule.


  1. Scientists have created elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, but they don't exist naturally.
  2. The weighted mean molar atomic mass of an element as it naturally occurs will be referred to simply as the atomic mass of the element from now on.
  3. Tiny amounts of plutonium, which has an atomic number of 94, also occur naturally.


  1. Avogadro's number (N A) and the mole are defined so that one mole of a substance with atomic or molecular mass 1 u will have a mass of precisely 1 gram.
  2. The atomic mass unit, 1 gram divided by Avogadro's number, is almost the mass of a hydrogen atom, which is mostly the mass of the proton.
  3. For example, the energy released by the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in WWII was equivalent to about one gram of mass.

Molecular Hydrogen

  1. The red color in the outer regions of the nebulae arises from emission by atomic and molecular hydrogen in the 2 micron wavelength band.
  2. When the helium is vaporized, the atomic hydrogen would be released and combine back to molecular hydrogen.


  1. Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and Plasma (physics) states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen.
  2. Cosmic rays are particles - mostly protons but sometimes heavy atomic nuclei - that travel through the universe at close to the speed of light.
  3. These subatomic particles are the principal constituents of atomic nuclei and therefore of most matter in the universe.


  1. Szilard was soon collaborating with Eugene Wigner, Albert Einstein, Neils Bohr, Edward Teller and other physicists on the possibility of an atomic weapon.
  2. In it, the point of divergence is during World War II, with the Soviet Union first to develop an atomic weapon, which they immediately use on Berlin.
  3. Atomic bombs use this energy as a weapon for killing.

Atomic Orbital

  1. In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom.
  2. Atomic orbital - Atomic orbitals are the quantum states of the individual electrons in the electron cloud around a single atom.
  3. Three of these are integers and are properties of the atomic orbital in which it sits (a more thorough explanation is given in that article).


  1. An electron bound in an atomic orbital has quantized values of angular momentum and energy.
  2. An atomic orbital is the description of the behavior of an electron in an atom according to quantum mechanics.
  3. Each electron in an atom exists at a particular energy state within a characteristic region about the nucleus that is defined by an atomic orbital.


  1. The wave–particle duality of energy and matter at the atomic scale provides a unified view of the behavior of particles such as photons and electrons.
  2. Quantum mechanics (QM) is a branch of physics describing the behavior of energy and matter at the atomic and subatomic scales.
  3. Quantum mechanics is the set of scientific principles describing the behavior of energy and matter on the atomic and subatomatic scale.

Magnetic Moment

  1. At the atomic and sub-atomic scales, this connection is expressed by the ratio of magnetic moment to angular momentum, the gyromagnetic ratio.
  2. The cue ball can be made to mimic the atomic particles by spinning it so that it has angular momentum as well as its "intrinsic" magnetic moment.


  1. The nuclear magnetic moment is the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus and arises from the spin of the protons and neutrons.
  2. In atomic physics, the electron magnetic dipole moment is the magnetic moment of an electron caused by its intrinsic property of spin.
  3. All nucleons, that is neutrons and protons, composing any atomic nucleus, have the intrinsic quantum property of spin.


  1. The familiar components of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons), are composed of smaller fundamental building blocks known as quarks.
  2. Such experiments have revealed protons and neutrons within the atomic nucleus, and then quarks within protons and neutrons.
  3. As a consequence, none of the analytical techniques used to successfully solve atomic and nuclear physics problems can be used to analyze quarks and gluons.


  1. The theory, known as quantum chromodynamics, describes the interactions of quarks and other subatomic particles inside the atomic nucleus.
  2. Quantum mechanics is a body of scientific principles describing the behavior of matter and its interactions on the atomic and subatomic scales.
  3. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei.

Nuclear Fusion

  1. Nuclear fusion is a process where two or more nuclei combine to form an element with a higher atomic number (more protons in the nucleus).
  2. In stars that undergo nuclear fusion, fuel consists of atomic nuclei that can release energy by the absorption of a proton or neutron.
  3. Since then, atomic nuclei have been combined in stars through the process of nuclear fusion to generate atoms up to iron.


  1. There are two fundamental ways to release energy from nuclear reactions: fission and fusion of atomic nuclei.
  2. A reaction, as in fission, fusion, or radioactive decay, that alters the energy, composition, or structure of an atomic nucleus.
  3. The limiting factor in this process is the amount of energy that is released through fusion, which is dependent on the binding energy of these atomic nuclei.

Atomic Properties

  1. Dopants The materials chosen as suitable dopants depend on the atomic properties of both the dopant and the material to be doped.
  2. As further electrons are added to shells outside the core, the atomic properties are primarily determined by these valence electrons.
  3. Each element has its own unique atom, and the atomic properties determine the chemical behaviour of the element.


  1. Variation in properties between isotopes Chemical and atomic properties A neutral atom has the same number of electrons as protons.
  2. And it is this quantization of energy, along with some other atomic properties that are quantized, which gives quantum mechanics its name.
  3. However, the nuclear and atomic properties of isotopes can be different.


  1. Leahy, Byrnes and Groves wanted to prevent him meeting with the atomic scientists who invented the bomb.
  2. Theatre: Copenhagen, Tony Award winner about two atomic scientists who meet in the thick of World War II, plays at 8 p.m.
  3. It was the nucleus, scientists concluded, that had to be broken or "exploded" if atomic energy was to be released.


  1. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.
  2. Quarks combine to form composite particle s called hadron s, the most stable of which are proton s and neutron s, the components of atomic nuclei.
  3. The radiation is emitted by unstable atomic nuclei (see nucleus) as they attempt to become more stable.


  1. The decay of heavy or unstable atomic nuclei (such as uranium or carbon-10) into more stable nuclei and emitted particles is called radioactive decay.
  2. While all particles produced by the decay of an atomic nucleus have the energy to penetrate substances, some particles have much more energy than others.
  3. During this decay, a neutron in the atomic nucleus becomes a proton, but the time in which it does this is unpredictable.

First Atomic Bombs

  1. Elements heavier than iron only release energy when split, as was the case with the plutonium and uranium used in the first atomic bombs.
  2. Racing for the Bomb is an extensive account of the life of General Leslie R. Groves, who oversaw the building of the first atomic bombs.
  3. After the war, Robert Oppenheimer remarked that the physicists had "known sin" as a result of their development of the first atomic bombs.

World War

  1. During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  2. During World War II, he was head of the Theoretical Division at the secret Los Alamos laboratory developing the first atomic bombs.
  3. During World War II, the U.S. was the first to develop the atomic bomb, ushering in the atomic age.


  1. Historically, nuclear physicists have studied the structure, characteristics, and behavior of the atomic nucleus and the nature of the nuclear force.
  2. Superstring theory establishes a framework for explaining all of the properties of the atomic and subatomic particles observed in nature.
  3. Mulliken charge populations of atomic orbitals, valence of individual atoms, and nature of bonds between the atoms also were determined.


  1. Dirac shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1933 with Erwin Schrdinger "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".
  2. The original table was created before the discovery of subatomic particles or the formulation of current quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure.
  3. The discovery of the noble gases aided in the development of a general understanding of atomic structure.

Unstable Atomic Nucleus

  1. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves.
  2. Nature uses radioactivity to gain stability for an unstable atomic nucleus.
  3. The splitting of an unstable atomic nucleus into two or more nuclei.


  1. Radioactive decay is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles or radiation.
  2. Spontaneous emission of radiation, either directly from unstable atomic nuclei or as a consequence of a nuclear reaction.
  3. Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles (radiation).


  1. The main gases within the exosphere are the lightest gases, mainly hydrogen, with some helium, carbon dioxide, and atomic oxygen near the exobase.
  2. The atomic oxygen to carbon ratio of the region 153 kerogen may decrease much slower than the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the region 153 kerogen.
  3. For example, the atomic numbers of hydrogen and oxygen are 1 and 8, respectively.


  1. At the atomic scale, the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is sometimes referred to as heat energy.
  2. The characteristics of the orbits of electrons about atomic nuclei determine what molecules can be formed as the atoms bind to each other.
  3. Because the behavior of atoms and molecules is primarily electromagnetic in nature, all of atomic physics can be considered a test laboratory for the theory.


  1. Atomic masses are not listed as whole numbers on the periodic table because atoms can come in forms with different amounts of neutrons.
  2. There are no stable isotopes of any element with atomic masses 5 or 8; beryllium-8 (4 protons and 4 neutrons) is highly unstable and short-lived.
  3. Unstable copper isotopes with atomic masses below 63 tend to undergo β + decay, while isotopes with atomic masses above 65 tend to undergo β − decay.


  1. The mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the individual protons and neutrons that constitute it.
  2. When auto-generating bonds, CrystalMaker uses the sum of atomic radii (plus 15%) to estimate the maximum search distances.
  3. Its value in atomic mass units (u) is approximately equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.

Atomic Matter

  1. No piece of atomic matter, not even a single atom, can be made into an electron.
  2. Radiation can be classified as ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, depending on its effect on atomic matter.


  1. All elements other than hydrogen and helium today account for only 2% of the mass of atomic matter in the universe.
  2. The atomic matter that shapes the telescope has to someway construe the energy produced from astronomical matter.
  3. The key to understanding of atomic matter through number theory exists therein that atoms consist of whole numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons.


  1. In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure.
  2. Another 21% of the air is oxygen, with each molecule having an atomic weight of 32.
  3. Mathematical expression, called a wave function, that describes properties characteristic of no more than two electrons near an atomic nucleus or molecule.


  1. For example, physical chemistry involves applying the principles of physics to materials at the atomic and molecular level.
  2. For example, physical chemistry involves applying the principles of physics to materials at the atomic and subatomic level.
  3. The atomic number (Z) is a term used in chemistry and physics to represent the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

Energy Level

  1. This pattern is referred to as its atomic orbital and the shape of its orbital depends on its energy level (or, more specifically, its quantum state).
  2. Check out a periodic table for the value of Z (the atomic number of Oxygen) and n would be your energy level, i.e.
  3. The atomic radius usually increases while going down a group due to the addition of a new energy level (shell).

Energy Levels

  1. Let's look first at atomic energy levels and then see how changes in these energy levels can lead to the production of laser light.
  2. Laser light consists of essentially one wavelength, having its origin in stimulated emission from one set of atomic energy levels.
  3. The systemization and classification of atomic energy levels (spectroscopy) has played a central role in developing an understanding of atomic structure.


  1. Various experiments allow to compare masses of atoms or molecules, and atomic and molecular weights can therefore be determined rather easily.
  2. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 31. Electronic structure of atoms and molecules: theory 32.
  3. The atomic masses of the atoms really measure the mass of a mole of that atom.


  1. Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus and the emission of particles or electromagnetic radiation.
  2. Radioactivity The spontaneous decay of disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus accompanied by the emission of radiation.
  3. Rutherford is known for his studies of radioactivity and for his discovery of the atomic nucleus.

Molecular Orbitals

  1. Molecular orbitals are usually spread across many atoms in the molecule, and they are often described as a combination of atomic orbitals on those atoms.
  2. Just as with atomic orbitals, molecular orbitals can only contain two electrons and these must be of opposite spin.
  3. These are related by Pauli's exclusion principle to the antisymmetrized products of the atomic or molecular orbitals.

Molecular Orbital

  1. Electron binding energy (BE) is the energy required to release an electron from its atomic or molecular orbital.
  2. Only a maximum of two electrons can occupy any orbital whether it is an atomic orbital or a molecular orbital due to electron-electron repulsion.
  3. A molecular orbital that can be described as the result of destructive interference of atomic orbitals on bonded atoms.


  1. Bohr placed the electrons in stable formation around the atomic nucleus.
  2. Bohr and colleague Benjamin Mottelson helped prove the theories of James Rainwater regarding the structure of atomic nuclei.
  3. Quantization of the electromagnetic field was explained by the discreteness of the atomic energy levels; Bohr did not believe in the existence of photons.

Niels Bohr

  1. In the atomic model of Niels Bohr (Danish physicist), an electron cloud swarms around the nucleus of an atom.
  2. Niels Bohr was the Danish physicist whose investigations of atomic structure earned him the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics.
  3. The work of Ernest Rutherford, H. G. J. Moseley, and Niels Bohr on atomic structure (see atom) was applied to molecular structures.


  1. Elements
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    * Atom * Atomic Bomb * Atomic Electrons * Atomic Energy * Atomic Hydrogen * Atomic Mass Number * Atomic Nuclei * Atomic Nucleus * Atomic Number * Atomic Particles * Atomic Physics * Atomic Weight * Binding Energy * Bomb * Chemical Element * Electron * Electrons * Element * Elements * Energy * Greater * Hydrogen * Mass * Molecular * Molecular Physics * Neutron * Neutrons * Neutron Number * Nuclear * Nuclear Physics * Nuclei * Nucleus * Orbitals * Particle * Particles * Physics * Proton * Protons * Radioactive * Symbol * Weight
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