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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Chemistry > Biochemistry > Molecular Biology > Proteins > Binding   Michael Charnine

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    This Review contains major "Binding"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.


  1. Binding is a way of neatening a raw edge using a separate length of fabric.
  2. A binding is provided for Lua to OpenGL, GLUT and GLUI so that graphical scripts can be written.
  3. Binding is among the largest breweries in the country, while Henninger is a major exporter, and both produce a wide range of products.
  4. Binding is done with string, strips of cloth or other textile material, just below the leaves surrounding the stem so that to be enough place to grow fruit.
  5. Binding is when Microsoft's XSLT processor determines which function to invoke.


  1. The level of thyroxine can change depending on several factors including the levels of thyroid binding globulin (TBG) and albumin protein in the serum.
  2. This interaction is blocked with serum obtained from recovering SARS patients, indicating that the binding is specific.

Drug Interactions

  1. Pregabalin has no drug interactions, no liver metabolism, no protein binding, and similar side effects to gabapentin.


  1. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug.
  2. The drug decreases inflammation by binding to immune cells and preventing them from leaving the bloodstream and reaching the areas of inflammation.
  3. Plasma protein binding is very high, providing a blood reservoir of the drug.


  1. An inverse agonist is a ligand that by binding to a receptor reduces the fraction of receptors in an active conformation, thereby reducing basal activity.
  2. An agonist is a molecule that acts similar to these neurotransmitters by also binding to receptors.
  3. Pyritinol did not greatly affect the number of binding sites (Bmax), but reduced the affinity (raised the dissociation constant KD) of both receptors.


  1. Surface expression of CD40L on T cells is rapidly down-regulated on binding to CD40 142 and IL-4 production by activated T cells is transient.
  2. Gale AJ, Griffin JH. Characterization of a thrombomodulin binding site on protein C and its comparison to an activated protein C binding site for factor Va.
  3. Binding of activated protein C to protein S leads to a modest increase in its activity.


  1. Zonisamide has a long half-life (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Due to the low protein binding of zonisamide (40%), renal dialysis may not be effective.
  2. Thus, because of its minimal protein binding and lack of hepatic metabolism, the risk of drug interactions is very low.
  3. Another possibility is that an enzyme involved in the binding of LH to its receptor in the testes is low or absent.


  1. These cells also bound an additional 6,000-10,000 molecules Factor Va per cell as determined by direct binding studies using 125I-Factor Va.
  2. The first step in the HIV infection of a cell is the binding of the virion particle to proteins on the surface of lymphocytes.
  3. Following entry of circulating hormone into the cell, binding elicits a conformational change in the receptor, dissociating the receptor from the hsp.


  1. Another possibility is that in addition to phosphorylation of Nur77, the binding of RSK to Nur77 may be able to allosterically activate Nur77.
  2. Channel conductance and binding properties of the receptor can be modified by both glycosylation and phosphorylation.

N-Terminal Domain

  1. This study examined the role of the 15-amino acid N-terminal domain of HK1 in binding to liver and hepatoma mitochondria.
  2. RNA has been shown to bind to the N-terminal domain (NTD), although recently the C-terminal half of the protein has also been implicated in RNA binding.
  3. The serine protease activity is localized at the N-terminal domain, whereas the binding domain is in the C-terminal region.


  1. Additionally, the influence of ZNS on the serum protein binding, erythrocyte distribution and metabolism of these antiepileptics was studied in vitro.
  2. The serum protein binding and erythrocyte distribution of ZNS showed no significant change in the presence of other antiepileptics in vitro.
  3. Alkylation of 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) in vitro and binding to DNA in the rat.

Human Platelets

  1. Human platelets as a model for the binding and degradation of thrombopoietin.
  2. First, Ad binding to human platelets can be manipulated in vitro by combining a divalent ion and thrombin activation (Fig.


  1. Erythromycin acts by inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 50 S ribosomal subunits of susceptible organisms.
  2. This class of drug acts by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of susceptible organisms where it interferes with protein synthesis.
  3. These antibiotics exert their activity by binding to bacterial ribosomes and preventing the initiation of protein synthesis.


  1. The acetylation prevents chloramphenicol from binding to the ribosome.
  2. The mRNA is read by the ribosome as triplate codons, usually beginning with an AUG, or initiator methonine codon downstream of the ribosome binding site.


  1. Iron is also needed by other cells, especially muscle (which contains another oxygen binding protein called myoglobin).
  2. Heme The iron-containing molecule in hemoglobin that serves as the site for oxygen binding.
  3. At the core of the molecule is a heterocyclic ring, known as a porphyrin which holds an iron atom; this iron atom is the site of oxygen binding.

High Affinity

  1. ACREB sticks to CREB with a high affinity, soaking it up and preventing it from binding to DNA and switching on its target genes.

Transcription Factors

  1. DNA binding proteins, enhancers, and the control of gene expression describes transcription and transcription factors.
  2. Binding of Shh to Ptch relieves the repression of Smo, triggering events that culminate in the activation of transcription factors of the Gli family.
  3. Chemically, transcription factors usually interact with their binding sites using a combination of hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces.


  1. These steps include virus binding, endocytosis, endosome processing, nuclear transport, uncoating, gene conversion, transcription, and translation.
  2. Binding of this repressor to its operon prevents transcription of downstream DNA that codes for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan.
  3. AP-1 site: The binding site on DNA at which the transcription "factor" AP-1 binds, thereby altering the rate of transcription for the adjacent gene.


  1. The role of sialic acid in virus binding was examined by neuraminidase treatment of cells.
  2. The receptor for S protein binding in MHV and HCoV-OC43 are CEACAM1 and sialic acid, respectively (15, 41, 43).
  3. This dimple-like depression has also been identified as a sialic acid binding site of MVM and canine parvovirus (5, 44, 69).


  1. After binding to the molecule, the protein changes shape and carries the molecule across the membrane, where it is released.
  2. This occurs due to the binding of haemagglutinin part of the viral protein to receptors on the membrane of red blood cells.
  3. Thus, when the antibody is added, there is no room on the membrane for it to attach other than on the binding sites of the specific target protein.

Cell Surface

  1. Hepcidin functions by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin on the cell surface, inducing its internalisation and targeting it for degradation.
  2. This action, as well as the synthesis of the hormones, is stimulated by the binding of TSH to transmembrane receptors at the cell surface.
  3. To enter a cell, a virus attaches to the cell surface via binding to a specific receptor.

Target Cells

  1. They are single chain polypeptides consisting of an N-terminal domain responsible for binding to target cells and a C-terminal catalytic domain.
  2. The binding sites on the target cells are called hormone receptors.
  3. After release into the systemic circulation, FSH and LH exert their effect by binding to plasma membrane receptors of the target cells.

Target Cell

  1. After binding of a virus to its target cell, the HR regions change their conformation, which is required for membrane fusion.
  2. Briefly, the composition can be tested for its ability to inhibit the binding between a coronavirus and its target cell in vitro.
  3. This is accomplished by receptors, which are binding sites either on the surface of the target cell or within its nucleus.


  1. Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization.
  2. Hepcidin achieves this by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin and inducing its internalization and degradation[68,69].

Binding Affinity

  1. Mutations in factor H reduce binding affinity to C3b and heparin and surface attachment to endothelial cells in hemolytic uremic syndrome.
  2. The antagonistic activity of these peptide analogs on processes mediated by receptors for GHRH and VIP was consistent with the binding affinity.
  3. While enzymes are limited in their binding affinity for their substrates by the necessity of conducting their reaction, antibodies have no such constraints.


  1. The binding affinity of agrin isoforms to alpha-dystroglycan correlates neither with binding to heparin nor with their AChR-aggregating activities.
  2. RuBisCO, the enzyme that captures carbon dioxide in the light-independent reactions, has a binding affinity for both carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  3. This effect, however, affects equally the binding affinity of substrate and inhibitors.

Home Address

  1. When the Home Agent tries to forward the packet to the next hop, it finds a binding cache entry for the home address.
  2. Mobility Binding The association of a home address with a care-of address, along with the remaining lifetime of that association.


  1. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of Co(2+) and Zn(2+) binding to EaCoMT also showed cooperativity for metal ion binding among six sites.


  1. Effects of substrate binding and phosphorylation on the fluorescence and anisotropy decay.
  2. Thus, mixed-type inhibitors interfere with substrate binding (increase K m) and hamper catalysis in the ES complex (decrease V max).
  3. Positive cooperativity occurs when binding of the first substrate molecule increases the affinity of the other active sites for substrate.

Factor Xa

  1. By binding to antithrombin, fondaparinux inhibits factor Xa.
  2. Inhibition of factor Xa requires binding heparin to AT-III through the unique pentasaccharide without the additional requirement for binding to Xa.
  3. This effect is likely accomplished by promoting the binding of both prothrombin and factor Xa to the procoagulant surface.


  1. Our previous data revealed that Ca2+ binding to the protease domain increases the affinity of FIXa for FVIIIa approximately 15-fold.


  1. Binding of FIX to labeled FXIa increased the dansyl fluorescence (Fig.
  2. The kinetic values obtained by SPR were similar to those obtained for binding of the same proteins with fIXa (Table II, Fig.
  3. FIG. 5. Binding of transferrin and capsids of CPV, FPV, or mutant virus to TRVb cells expressing the canine TfR from plasmids.


  1. The HFE protein complexes with the transferrin receptor (TfR) and decreases the binding affinity of TfR to transferrin (Tf).
  2. Recent results showed that CPV expanded its host range by binding to the canine transferrin receptor (Tfr).
  3. The HFE-TfR complex suggests a binding site for transferrin on TfR and sheds light upon the function of HFE in regulating iron homeostasis.

Ligand Binding

  1. These mutants also exhibited subnormal extents of loss of ligand binding, which is assessed after removal of the ligand.
  2. These hormones bind cell-surface receptors that are coupled to the activation of adenylate cyclase upon ligand binding.
  3. Upon ligand binding, the hormone-receptor complex translocates to the nucleus where it binds specific DNA sequences and modulates transcription.


  1. Upon ligand binding, these receptors activate G proteins.
  2. The hemochromatosis gene product complexes with the transferrin receptor and lowers its affinity for ligand binding.
  3. The activation of ErbB3 requires ligand binding and phosphorylation by other tyrosine kinases.


  1. Protein C circulates in the blood as a zymogen and is activated to a serine protease by the binding of thrombin to thrombomodulin (see below).
  2. That is, the binding of thrombin to thrombomodulin on endothelial cells results in Protein C activation.
  3. Angiomax does not exhibit binding to plasma proteins (other than thrombin) or red blood cells.

Specific Binding

  1. The specific binding of Factor XIIIa to platelets suggests it may play a role in physiologic reactions involving platelets.
  2. Molecular recognition is the specific binding of a guest molecule to a complementary host molecule to form a host-guest complex.
  3. Argatroban, a synthetic peptide, directly inhibits thrombin through reversible and specific binding to the catalytic domain of thrombin.


  1. In males, approximately 40% of the binding is to the high-affinity sex hormone binding globulin ("SHBG"). The remaining 60% is bound weakly to albumin.
  2. However, the binding by zonisamide is complicated by its binding to erythrocytes as well as albumin.
  3. In serum, testosterone is bound with high affinity to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and with low affinity to albumin.

Plasma Proteins

  1. The binding of lamotrigine to plasma proteins did not change in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbital, or valproate.
  2. Binding of thyroid hormones to plasma proteins protects the hormones from metabolism and excretion, resulting in their long half-lives in the circulation.
  3. Binding of epirubicin to plasma proteins, predominantly albumin, is about 77% and is not affected by drug concentration.


  1. The receptor binding acts as more than a simple tether and induces specific structures in the proteins that are required for cell infection by the viruses.
  2. Modification of -DG by LARGE further influences the ability of the virus to compete with the ECM protein laminin for receptor binding.
  3. The mechanism of ZAP-70 activation following receptor binding is still not completely understood.

Transferrin Receptor

  1. Transferrin receptor (TfR) plays a major role in cellular iron uptake through binding and internalizing a carrier protein transferrin (Tf).
  2. Binding to the transferrin receptor is required for endocytosis of HFE and regulation of iron homeostasis.
  3. IRP1 coordinately controls the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) within their mRNAs.


  1. For example, binding of G proteins to receptors affects the receptor's affinity for ligands.
  2. Activation increases the affinity of bound integrin receptors for ligands on the endothelial cell surface, firmly binding the leukocytes to the endothelium.
  3. Binding and release of ligands induces a conformational (structural) change in hemoglobin.

Cooperative Binding

  1. For a protein or complex that binds multiple ligands, cooperative binding is a phenomenon where binding gets progressively easier as more ligands bind.
  2. The Hill coefficient was originally devised to explain the cooperative binding of oxygen to Hemoglobin (a system which has a Hill coefficient of 2.8).
  3. In biochemistry, a macromolecule exhibits cooperative binding if its affinity for its ligand changes with the amount of ligand already bound.

Active Site

  1. The derived Hill coefficient n measures how much the binding of substrate to one active site affects the binding of substrate to the other active sites.
  2. The direct thrombin inhibitors, a newer class of medication, directly inhibit thrombin by binding to its active site.
  3. The binding with an allosteric inhibitor inactivates the enzyme molecule because the conformation of the active site is altered.

Substrate Binding

  1. In addition, we characterized the effect of the Gla domain and carboxylation on propeptide and substrate binding.
  2. Homologous mutations in the E. coli DHPS gene are located in an active site involved in substrate binding.
  3. The periplasm contains the peptidoglycan layer and many proteins responsible for substrate binding or hydrolysis and reception of extracellular signals.

Mobile Node

  1. As discussed in the last section, Mobile IP supports mobility by transparently binding the home address of the mobile node with its care-of address.
  2. In order to make this possible, it is necessary that the home address of the mobile node is visible in the Binding Updates and Acknowledgements.
  3. The paper does not discuss the behavior of a mobile node sending a Binding Update, in the case where the mobile node is sending to the correspondent node.

Home Agent

  1. This bit is valid only in Binding Updates sent to the home agent, and MUST be cleared in other Binding Updates.
  2. The mobile node performs this binding registration by sending a "Binding Update" message to the home agent.
  3. In all cases above, the Mobile Router MUST conclude that the Home Agent did not create a binding cache entry for the Mobile Router's Home Address.


  1. Chemistry > Biochemistry > Molecular Biology > Proteins
  2. Neutrons
  3. Plasma
  4. Molecule
  5. Protons

Related Keywords

    * Activation * Agreement * Antibodies * Antibody * Binding Energies * Binding Energy * Binding Knot * Binding Molecule * Binding Proteins * Binding Site * Binding Sites * Binding Update * Calcium * Cells * Court * Decisions * Dna * Dna Binding * Effect * Electron * Electrons * Energy * Enzyme * Enzymes * Hemoglobin * Hormone * Hormones * Interaction * Interactions * Iron * Knot * Law * Mass * Mobile Router * Molecule * Molecules * Neutron * Neutrons * Nuclei * Nucleus * Parties * Plasma * Platelets * Proteins * Proton * Protons
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  Originally created: June 10, 2008.
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