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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Soil > Cadmium   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
BATTERIES
CADMIUM
CADMIUM TELLURIDE
CADMIUM SULFIDE
INHALATION
KIDNEY
METAL HYDRIDE
CADMIUM SELENIDE
CADMIUM COMPOUNDS
WHEN HEATED
ORES
PRIMARY
LONG-TERM EXPOSURE
GERMANY
DUST
PIGMENT
WORKERS
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING
WORLD WAR
ZINC
SMELTING
HAZARD
BIOLOGICAL
NOTED ABOVE
PREVENT
SITE
COMPLEX
EXAMPLES
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Cadmium"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Cadmium is a lustrous, silver-white, ductile, very malleable metal.
  2. Cadmium is used in alkaline nickel-cadmium electric storage cells, which have a greater storage capacity than an equal weight of lead-acid storage cells.
  3. Cadmium is a common impurity in zinc, and it is most often isolated during the production of zinc.
  4. Cadmium is also a potential environmental hazard.
  5. Cadmium is a soft, malleable, ductile, toxic, bluish-white bivalent metal.

Batteries

  1. It is used in the nickel-cadmium (NiCad) storage battery.
  2. Nickel Cadmium Battery — A battery containing nickel and cadmium plates and an alkaline electrolyte.
  3. The company stocks nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sealed lead acid, lithium, and alkaline batteries.
  4. Offer lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride batteries and battery chargers and power supplies.

Cadmium

  1. Despite the high cadmium content in cigarette smoke, there seems to be little exposure to cadmium from passive smoking.
  2. Tobacco smoking is the most important single source of cadmium exposure in the general population.
  3. No significant effect on blood cadmium concentrations could be detected in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
  4. Cadmium is also carcinogenic in the pancreas.
  5. Documents the adverse health effects from acute and chronic exposure to cadmium in both humans and animals.

Cadmium Telluride

  1. Cadmium telluride, polycrystalline 16% - glass or metal substrate Copper indium arsenide diselenide, polycrystalline 18% 10% 10 inch flexible polymer web.
  2. Alloyed with both cadmium and mercury, to form mercury cadmium telluride, an infrared sensitive semiconductor material is formed.

Cadmium Sulfide

  1. Cadmium forms various salts, with cadmium sulfide being the most common.
  2. Cadmium does not occur uncombined in nature; greenockite, a cadmium sulfide mineral first found in Scotland, is the only commercial ore.
  3. Cadmium sulfate and cadmium sulfide are used in pigments, fluorescent screens, in photoelectric cells, and in electroplating.

Inhalation

  1. Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death.
  2. Animal studies have demonstrated an increase in lung cancer from long-term inhalation exposure to cadmium.

Kidney

  1. Ingestion of any significant amount of cadmium causes immediate poisoning and damage to the liver and the kidneys.
  2. The suitability of DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) to serve as an antidote in cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rat hepatocytes was investigated.
  3. Cadmium can cause liver and kidney damage if taken in sufficient amounts.
  4. Cadmium is taken up and retained by aquatic and terrestrial plants and is then transferred to animals, where the cadmium deposits in the liver and kidneys.

Metal Hydride

  1. Rechargeable batteries, such as nickel metal hydride batteries and nickel cadmium batteries.
  2. Manufactures batteries including lithium, alkaline, nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride specialising in button cells.
  3. Manufactures and distributes primary batteries, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride(NiMH)and battery packs.

Cadmium Selenide

  1. In 1927, the International Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the meter in terms of a red cadmium spectral line (1m = 1,553,164.13 wavelengths).
  2. Cadmium selenide can be used as red pigment, commonly called cadmium red.
  3. Used in some semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, and cadmium telluride, which can be used for light detection or solar cells.
  4. Cadmium and several cadmium-containing compounds are known carcinogens and can induce many types of cancer [5].

Cadmium Compounds

  1. Some cadmium compounds are employed in PVC as stabilizers.
  2. Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109 Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115 Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours.
  3. There is no such thing as cadmium blue, green or violet.
  4. The isotopes of cadmium range in atomic weight from 96.935 amu (Cd-97) to 129.934 amu (Cd-138).
  5. The known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u ( 95 Cd) to 131.946 u ( 132 Cd).

When Heated

  1. While working with cadmium it is important to do so under a fume hood to protect against dangerous fumes.
  2. The cadmium caused the zinc carbonate to turn yellow when heated.
  3. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of cadmium, hydrofluoric acid, and other fluorinated compounds.

Ores

  1. Cadmium-containing ores are rare and when found they occur in small quantities.
  2. A relatively rare, soft, bluish-white, transition metal, cadmium is known to cause cancer and occurs with zinc ores.
  3. A relatively rare, soft, bluish-white, toxic transition metal, cadmium occurs with zinc ores and is used largely in batteries.

Primary

  1. The primary decay products before Ag-107 are palladium (element 46) isotopes and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.
  2. In 1997, only two companies produced primary cadmium in the United States-the electrolytic plants in Sauget, IL, and Clarksville, TN (USDOI, 1997).

Long-Term Exposure

  1. Serious toxicity problems have resulted from long-term exposure to cadmium plating baths.
  2. However, there have been notable instances of toxicity as the result of long-term exposure to cadmium in contaminated food and water.
  3. Long-term exposure to lower levels of cadmium in air, food, or water leads to a buildup of cadmium in the kidneys and possible kidney disease.

Germany

  1. Cadmium ( Latin cadmia, Greek kadmeia meaning " calamine ") was discovered in Germany in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer.
  2. Cadmium, a soft, malleable, ductile, bluish-white metal, was discovered in Germany in 1817 and for 100 years Germany remained the only important producer.

Dust

  1. Small amounts of cadmium, about 10% of consumption, are produced from secondary sources, mainly from dust generated by recycling iron and steel scrap.
  2. Inhaling cadmium laden dust quickly leads to respiratory tract and kidney problems which can be fatal (often from renal failure).

Pigment

  1. Cadmium yellow (the sulfide) is a very durable yellow pigment used in paints.
  2. To painters that work with the pigment, cadmium yellows, oranges, and reds are the most potent colours to use.

Workers

  1. Failure to appreciate the toxic properties of cadmium may cause workers to be unwittingly exposed to dangerous fumes.
  2. The health of battery workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust.
  3. About this toxicology lab specializing in economical blood lead and cadmium testing for children and industry workers.

Compounds Containing

  1. Compounds containing cadmium are used in black and white television phosphors and also in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes.
  2. Compounds containing cadmium are also carcinogenic.

World War

  1. Production in the United States began in 1907 but it was not until after World War I that cadmium came into wide use.
  2. In the decades following World War II, Japanese mining operations contaminated the Jinzu River with cadmium and traces of other toxic metals.

Zinc

  1. Cadmium oxide, a brown powder formed by burning the metal in air, is used in electroplating; it is also made by heating cadmium hydroxide.
  2. On average, smokers have 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations and 2-3 times higher kidney cadmium concentrations than non-smokers.
  3. The highly monochromatic color arises from the 441.563 nm transition line of cadmium.
  4. Almost all cadmium is obtained as a by-product in the treatment of zinc, copper, and lead ores.
  5. Most cadmium is obtained as a by-product from zinc refinement.

Smelting

  1. Cadmium is obtained principally as a byproduct of the smelting and refining of ores of zinc, especially zinc sulfides, and of lead and copper.
  2. Cadmium is extracted from these ores during the smelting process, or with the assistance of chemicals such as sulfuric acid.

Hazard

  1. Slide 11: Cadmium is also a potential environmental hazard.
  2. Identifies a potential health hazard in the aircraft servicing, repairing, and maintenance industry resulting from exposure to cadmium dust.

Biological

  1. Cadmium may also interfere with biological processes containing magnesium and calcium in a similar fashion.
  2. Due to these similarities, cadmium can replace zinc in many biological systems, in particular, systems that contain softer ligands such as sulfur.
  3. Cadmium can bind up to ten times more strongly than zinc in certain biological systems, and is notoriously difficult to remove.

Noted Above

  1. As noted above, cadmium is mitogenic to pancreatic cells (79) .
  2. As noted above, extremely high levels of cadmium have been detected in Louisiana seafood (36) .

Prevent

  1. The major use of cadmium is as a coating that is electroplated on iron and steel to prevent corrosion; it is preferable to zinc for protection from alkalies.
  2. Cadmium based solders must be handled with care to prevent cadmium poisoning.

Site

  1. Cadmium as a Commodity - This was a -dot gov- site as well.
  2. This site, as the title hints, is about cars and how cadmium can be used.
  3. Like the Wikipedia site that I found, this gave me a broad overview of everything that I needed to know about Cadmium.

Complex

  1. Cadmium forms a carbonate, a chloride, and several complex ions.
  2. The sulfate anion, SO 4 2--- Sulfides (S 2---), a complex family of compounds usually derived from S 2---. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is an example.

Examples

  1. The most common oxidation state of cadmium is +2, though rare examples of +1 can be found.
  2. Examples of heavy metals include mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb).

Categories

  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Soil
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Places > Earth > Environment
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Materials
  4. Nature > Natural Resources > Minerals > Metals
  5. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature
  6. Books about "Cadmium" in Amazon.com

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  Originally created: May 07, 2008.
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