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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Chemistry > Carbonyl   Michael Charnine

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    This Review contains major "Carbonyl"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Carbonyl Compounds

  1. For this purpose, diketene is ozonized in the presence of a suitable carbonyl compound. (Web site)
  2. An imine can be hydrolysed with water to the corresponding amine and carbonyl compound.
  3. As with all carbonyl compounds, the protons on the ---carbon are labile due to keto-enol tautomerization. (Web site)
  4. In the usual aldol addition, a carbonyl compound is deprotonated to form the enolate.
  5. This hemiaminal eliminates the former hydroxyalkyl substituent as a carbonyl compound to form (6). (Web site)

Nucleophilic Addition

  1. This nucleophilic addition is a reversible reaction but with aliphatic carbonyl compounds equilibrium is in favor of the reaction products. (Web site)
  2. Again, this is strictly analogous to the situation in the aldol reaction, and it has resulted in a nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl carbon. (Web site)


  1. An enamine is a cousin of an enone, with the carbonyl replaced by an amine group. (Web site)
  2. Fischer carbenes, in which the carbene is tethered to a metal that bears an electron-withdrawing group (usually a carbonyl). (Web site)

Carbonyl Group

  1. An example is the Prins reaction where the electrophile is a carbonyl group.
  2. Grignard reagents undergo reactions with compounds containing carbonyl groups.
  3. Nevertheless, under vigorous acid-catalyzed oxidations with nitric or chromic acids ketones may undergo carbon-carbon bond cleavage at the carbonyl group.
  4. Using NaBH3CN is best because it will selectively reduce the iminium salt and not the carbonyl group. (Web site)
  5. Other methods have been applied for the regeneration of the masked carbonyl group, giving acylsilanes in good yields. (Web site)


  1. The ---carbon is important for enol and enolate based carbonyl chemistry as well. (Web site)
  2. Carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones, can be converted to enols or enol ethers.


  1. The reaction of a ketone with a nucleophile gives a tetrahedral carbonyl addition compound.
  2. Notes The nitrogen of the amine attacks the carbonyl carbon forming a tetrahedral intermediate. (Web site)
  3. Hydroxide ion attacks the carbonyl group to give a tetrahedral intermediate, followed by expulsion of the alkoxide ion to generate the acid.

Carbonyl Carbon

  1. A carbonyl carbon bonded to two carbon atoms distinguishes ketones from carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, amides, and other oxygen -containing compounds.
  2. This is followed by attack of the nucleophilic alpha carbon of the enolate on the carbonyl carbon of a second molecule of the ester. (Web site)
  3. Two molecules of an aldehyde combine so that the alpha-carbon of one becomes attached to the carbonyl carbon of the other. (Web site)
  4. The mechanism of this reaction starts just the same way the earlier one did; the first step is attack of the nucleophile at the carbonyl carbon. (Web site)

Addition Reactions

  1. It is important to distinguish the Aldol condensation from other addition reactions to carbonyl compounds.
  2. Many carbonyl addition reactions have been analyzed by a combination of steric and stereoelectronic factors.
  3. Note: You can read about addition reactions or addition-elimination reactions of carbonyl compounds elswhere on this site. (Web site)

Double Bond

  1. The resulting carbon-carbon double bond has a cumulative relationship to the carbonyl double bond, and compounds of this kind are called ketenes.
  2. It is somewhat misleading to write the carbonyl group as a covalent C=O double bond.
  3. This could be part of an alcohol (C-O single bond) or part of a carbonyl compound (C=O double bond). (Web site)


  1. The increased acidity and reactivity of C-H bonds alpha to a carbonyl group has been described.
  2. This is demonstrated in the following diagram, where the customary reactivity of a carbonyl substrate is shown on the left. (Web site)

Nickel Carbonyl

  1. Sunderman Sr FW. Use of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in the treatment of nickel carbonyl poisoning.
  2. Toxicity Vapourised nickel carbonyl is highly toxic; inhalation may be fatal.
  3. Shi Z. Acute nickel carbonyl poisoning: a report of 179 cases.

Acyl Substitution

  1. Ordinary nucleophilic additions or 1,2-nucleophilic additions deal mostly with additions to carbonyl compounds.
  2. In the majority of reactions it involves addition of nucleophiles to carbonyl compounds in what is called nucleophilic acyl substitution [1].
  3. Acid Catalyzed Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution In the previous examples, a nucleophile attacked the carbonyl group to generate a tetrahedral intermediate.


  1. Photolysis of epoxides gives carbonyl compounds as side products. (Web site)
  2. In the Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky reaction epoxides are generated from carbonyl groups and sulfonium ylide s. (Web site)

Carbonyl Sulfide

  1. Carbonyl sulfide is transported into the stratospheric sulfate layer where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid. (Web site)
  2. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the troposphere. (Web site)
  3. Last check: 2007-11-06) Carbonyl sulfide can be reduced by nitrogenase to carbon monoxide in Azotobacter vinelandii. (Web site)

Carbonyl Oxygen

  1. Notice that the nucleophilic attack is preceded by protonation of the carbonyl oxygen. (Web site)
  2. However, under extremely acidic conditions, the carbonyl oxygen can become protonated with a pKa of roughly -1. (Web site)

Mannich Base

  1. Addition of suitably activated carbonyl compounds to this imminium ion also leads to the corresponding Mannich base.
  2. The Mannich reaction is an example of nucleophilic addition of an amine to a carbonyl group followed by elimination of a hydroxyl anion to the Mannich base.


  1. The general reaction mechanism for acetalisation of a carbonyl group is shown below.
  2. In the acetalisation reaction, under acidic or basic conditions, an alcohol adds to the carbonyl group and a proton is transferred to form a hemiacetal. (Web site)

Hydrogen Atom

  1. In the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol, the carbonyl carbon acquires a hydrogen atom. (Web site)
  2. Aldehydes Compounds with at least one hydrogen atom bonded to the carbon of a carbonyl group.

Compound Containing

  1. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. (Web site)
  2. An organic compound containing the aldehyde functional group (---CHO); that is, one with a carbonyl group (C=O) located at one end of the carbon chain. (Web site)

Acyl Chlorides

  1. It is interesting to consider why the carbonyl group undergoes nucleophilic addition while the acyl group prefers nucleophilic substitution. (Web site)
  2. Esters are the most common carbonyl reactants, since they are cheaper and less hazardous to use than acyl chlorides and anhydrides. (Web site)


  1. The resulting salt of a carbonyl hydrate then breaks down to an aldehyde that undergoes further reduction. (Web site)
  2. Most hydrates and hemiacetals ( Y = OH & OR), for example, are known to decompose spontaneously to the corresponding carbonyl compounds.


  1. Consequently, enamines are easily converted back to their carbonyl precursors by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.
  2. Consequently, a mono-thioacetal is easily prepared from the less-hindered ketone, and this is reduced without changing the remaining carbonyl function.

Oxygen Atom

  1. Like the Wittig reagent, it is able to replace the oxygen atom on carbonyl groups with a methylene group. (Web site)
  2. In the first reaction step a lewis acid for instance aluminium chloride AlCl3 attacks the carbonyl oxygen atom of the acyl group.

Group Bonded

  1. It is often mentioned that a carboxyl group is a carbonyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group.
  2. However, in acyl compounds the carbonyl group is bonded to a substituent that can act as a leaving group.


  1. A tosylimine reacts with an --,---unsaturated carbonyl compound to an allylic amine in the Aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction.
  2. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e.g. (Web site)
  3. Acetals are sometimes used as protecting groups for carbonyl groups in organic synthesis as they are stable with respect to hydrolysis by bases.
  4. The double-bond of the carbonyl group distinguishes ketones from alcohols and ethers.
  5. Therefore, the carbonyl carbon becomes electrophilic, and thus more reactive with nucleophiles. (Web site)


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  Originally created: February 27, 2008.
  Links checked: March 24, 2013.
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