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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Chromosome > Chromosomes   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
DIFFERENT SPECIES
GENETICALLY
OFFSPRING
HALF
NUCLEI
MALE
EGGS
EGG
SYNDROME
GENE
TRAITS
SINGLE GENE
FUNGI
HIGHER ORGANISMS
FITNESS FUNCTION
DISJUNCTION
PLANTS
DELETION
DELETIONS
DIPLOID ZYGOTE
DUPLICATION
CHROMOSOME 21
SINGLE SET
MICROSCOPE
NUCLEAR GENOME
PROCESS
RECOMBINATION
PRESENCE
SITU HYBRIDIZATION
OPPOSITE ENDS
STANDARD SET
SPECIFIC GENES
STRUCTURAL PROTEINS
PROTEINS
LEUKEMIC CELLS
TELOPHASE
CYTOKINESIS
GENETICS
THOMAS HUNT MORGAN
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
NEOFORMANS
HISTONES
CYTOGENETICS
RESTRICTION ENZYMES
BASE PAIRS
ENDS
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Chromosomes"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Chromosomes are the structures in our cells which contain our genes; genes code for all of our traits such as eye color and blood type. (Web site)
  2. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus, although a dark spot called the nucleolus may be visible. (Web site)
  3. Chromosomes are composed of a single, very long molecule of double-stranded DNA and proteins. (Web site)
  4. Chromosomes are not always present - they form around the time cells divide when the two copies of the cell's DNA need to be separated. (Web site)
  5. Chromosomes are also dynamic in evolutionary terms because large DNA segments enter and leave the genome over time.

Different Species

  1. The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species. (Web site)

Genetically

  1. Genetically, gender in mammals such as whales is determined by two pieces of DNA called X and Y chromosomes. (Web site)

Offspring

  1. Changes in chromosomes or genes that cause offspring to have characteristics different from those of their parents. (Web site)
  2. Proteins form the structural basis of chromosomes, through which our genetic information is passed from parent to offspring.

Half

  1. The four daughter cells that are produced are each haploid, having only half the number of chromosomes as the original diploid cell.
  2. Each of the resulting four daughter cells, which has only half the full number of chromosomes, is said to be haploid.
  3. When the two animals mate, each contributes half its chromosomes to the offspring.

Nuclei

  1. The two nuclei in the dikaryon eventually fuse to produce a diploid cell—that is, a cell that contains one nucleus with two sets of chromosomes. (Web site)
  2. Such combinations of assemblages include bacteria, viruses, chromosomes, genes, mitochondria, nuclei, cell membranes, and the like. (Web site)

Male

  1. If your doctor suspects this is the case, genetic testing can be used to check for absent or abnormal regions of the male chromosomes (Y chromosomes).
  2. If two X chromosomes are present, and there is also a Y chromosome, the person will be a male with the Klinefelter syndrome. (Web site)
  3. God would need to have what makes a male a male: DNA, chromosomes and genes, the xy chromosome pair in the 23 paired position of human DNA, sex organs. (Web site)

Eggs

  1. Once the eggs are laid on land, the embryo’s sex is determined, not by chromosomes like in many other species, but by the surrounding temperature.

Egg

  1. When an egg and sperm unite to make a fertilized egg, the chromosomes add up to 46. (Web site)
  2. Sperm are released from antheridia and, in a drop of water, they swim to an egg and unite with it to create another sporophyte with two sets of chromosomes. (Web site)
  3. The human has forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three coming from the egg and twenty-three coming from the sperm. (Web site)

Syndrome

  1. Down Syndrome and Cri du Chat Syndrome result from having an abnormal number of chromosomes.

Gene

  1. G6PD deficiency is inherited from females who carry one copy of the gene on one of their X chromosomes, to half of their sons. (Web site)
  2. Occasionally, a gene or a larger part of a chromosome or the number of chromosomes becomes accidentally altered.
  3. In females (who have two X chromosomes), a mutation must be present in both copies of the gene to cause the disorder.

Traits

  1. Since Y chromosomes can only be found in males, Y linked traits are only passed on from father to son. (Web site)

Single Gene

  1. Mutation: A permanent, heritable change of the genetic material, either in a single gene or in the numbers or structures of the chromosomes.
  2. Scientists suspect that these chromosomes began to part ways when one of them acquired a single gene that could turn a mammal into a male.

Fungi

  1. Fungi do not have entire sex chromosomes, like the familiar X and Y chromosomes that determine sexual identity in humans. (Web site)

Higher Organisms

  1. In higher organisms, the DNA is located in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. (Web site)

Fitness Function

  1. In fitness proportionate selection, as in all selection methods, the fitness function assigns a fitness to possible solutions or chromosomes. (Web site)

Disjunction

  1. The normal separation of chromosomes in meiosis I or sister chromatids in meiosis II is termed disjunction. (Web site)
  2. Nondisjunction The normal separation of chromosomes in Meiosis I or sister chromatids in meiosis II is termed disjunction. (Web site)

Plants

  1. All plants have a life cycle that consists of two distinct forms that differ in size and the number of chromosomes per cell. (Web site)
  2. Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, yeast, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes contained in the cell's nucleus. (Web site)
  3. Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT) loci in fungi. (Web site)

Deletion

  1. This test detects changes in the chromosomes, such as the deletion of part of a chromosome. (Web site)

Deletions

  1. These random changes take the form of additions, deletions, and substitutions of nucleotides and of rearrangements of chromosomes. (Web site)
  2. Chromosome changes commonly seen in MDS include deletions in chromosomes 5 and 7 or an extra chromosome 8.
  3. The most common cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS are deletions in the long arm of chromosomes 5, 7, and 20. (Web site)

Diploid Zygote

  1. Opposite mating strains fuse in a process known as isogamy to form a diploid zygote, which contains two sets of chromosomes.

Duplication

  1. His current research focuses on the mechanisms controlling the duplication of eukaryotic chromosomes. (Web site)

Chromosome 21

  1. Although the two chromosomes are approximately the same length, chromosome 22 has more than twice as many genes as chromosome 21. (Web site)

Single Set

  1. Spores are haploid (having only a single set of chromosomes). (Web site)

Microscope

  1. Cytogenetic analysis -- views blood or bone marrow are viewed under a microscope to look for changes in the chromosomes.
  2. Before the development of genomics, DNA studies in humans were mostly relegated to observing highly condensed chromosomes under a microscope. (Web site)

Nuclear Genome

  1. In humans the nuclear genome is divided into 23 pairs of linear DNA molecules called chromosomes. (Web site)

Process

  1. The arrangement of the ascospores within an ascus is linear and thus reflects the precise behavior of chromosomes during the process of meiosis. (Web site)
  2. The program offers a detailed look at this process by carefully tracing the path of a pair of chromosomes during meiosis. (Web site)
  3. Synapsis: The pairing of two homologous chromosomes which occurs during the process of meiosis is known as synapsis. (Web site)

Recombination

  1. Recombination has the effect of making the chromosomes of the offspring distinct from those of the parents.
  2. There are several features unique to meiosis, most importantly the pairing and recombination between homologous chromosomes.
  3. Homologous chromosomes pair (or synapse) and crossing over (or recombination) occurs - a step unique to meiosis.

Presence

  1. Heterozygosity The presence of different alleles at one or more loci on homologous chromosomes. (Web site)
  2. CML is nearly always characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 (i.e., t[9;22]).
  3. By the early twentieth century, geneticists had associated the presence of genes with chromosomes.

Situ Hybridization

  1. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization): A mapping technique that uses fluorescent tags to identify specific locations of chromosomes. (Web site)
  2. Digital mapping of bacterial artificial chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  3. To identify male cells in female liver transplants, we used in situ hybridization for sex chromosomes. (Web site)

Opposite Ends

  1. As the cell elongates, corresponding sister chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends. (Web site)

Standard Set

  1. The clinical features of Down syndrome include any of a number of features that also appear in people with a standard set of chromosomes.

Specific Genes

  1. Localization of specific genes to chromosomes is routinely carried out with cloned genes as probes. (Web site)

Structural Proteins

  1. Within chromosomes, DNA is held in complexes with structural proteins. (Web site)
  2. This contact between the asbestos fiber and the chromosomes or structural proteins of the spindle apparatus can induce complex abnormalities. (Web site)
  3. The simplest chromosomes are found in viruses: these DNA or RNA molecules are short linear or circular chromosomes that often lack any structural proteins. (Web site)

Proteins

  1. Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins. (Web site)
  2. Genes and chromosomes dictate the kind of proteins each cell will manufacture, using different combinations of amino acids. (Web site)
  3. Definition: Mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes in eukaryotic cell division.

Leukemic Cells

  1. The number of chromosomes found in the leukemic cells, particularly in children, also impacts prognosis. (Web site)

Telophase

  1. Once this process is completed, the cells divide, the nuclear envelope reforms, and the chromosomes relax and decondense during telophase.

Cytokinesis

  1. Zhang, D. and Nicklas, R.B. (1996). 'Anaphase' and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes.
  2. The G2 stage stands for "GAP 2". The M stage stands for "mitosis", and is when nuclear (chromosomes separate) and cytoplasmic (cytokinesis) division occur. (Web site)

Genetics

  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The chemical typically formed into chromosomes that form the chemical basis of genetics and heredity. (Web site)
  2. Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes. (Web site)

Thomas Hunt Morgan

  1. In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan argued that genes are on chromosomes, based on observations of a sex-linked white eye mutation in fruit flies.
  2. In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan showed that genes reside on specific chromosomes. (Web site)

Sexual Reproduction

  1. In the first stage of sexual reproduction, "meiosis," the number of chromosomes is reduced from a diploid number (2n) to a haploid number (n). (Web site)
  2. During sexual reproduction there is a diploid phase (with two sets of chromosomes), which as a rule is very short.

Neoformans

  1. Genes located on chromosomes 1, 5, and 12 of C. neoformans are shown in grey. (Web site)
  2. We discovered that C. neoformans adapts to high concentration of FLC by formation of disomy in multiple chromosomes.

Histones

  1. This is one of the functions of the chromosomes, which contain spool-like proteins known as histones, around which DNA winds.
  2. Histones are proteins that bind to DNA and package it into compact structures to form chromosomes. (Web site)
  3. The nuclei of multicellular organisms incorporate chromosomes, which are composed of DNA combined with nuclear proteins called histones. (Web site)

Cytogenetics

  1. Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and chromosome abnormalities. (Web site)

Restriction Enzymes

  1. Macrorestriction map: Map depicting the order of and distance between sites at which restriction enzymes cleave chromosomes. (Web site)

Base Pairs

  1. Additionally, base pairs in chromosomes often undergo random mutations resulting in modified DNA (and subsequently, new proteins and phenotypes). (Web site)

Ends

  1. Therefore, restriction fragments of DNA from different chromosomes or genes can be ligated together, providing their ends are complementary. (Web site)
  2. Telomerase Telomeres are repetitive sequences at the ends of linear DNA molecules in eukaryotic chromosomes.

Categories

  1. Chromosome
  2. Meiosis
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Life > Genes
  4. Science > Biology > Genetics > Dna
  5. Cell

Related Keywords

    * Abnormalities * Abnormality * Anaphase * Aneuploidy * Asexual Reproduction * Bone Marrow * Cell * Cells * Cell Division * Cell Nucleus * Centrioles * Chromatid * Chromatids * Chromatin * Chromosome * Chromosome Number * Complete Set * Complete Sets * Daughter Cell * Daughter Cells * Diploid * Dna * Dna Replication * Egg Cells * Eukaryotes * Females * Fertilization * Gamete * Gametes * Genes * Genetic * Genetic Disorder * Genetic Information * Genetic Material * Genome * Genomes * Haploid * Haploid Gametes * Humans * Interphase * Karyotype * Karyotyping * Males * Meiosis * Metaphase * Mitosis * Normal Number * Nucleus * Number * Organism * Organisms * Pair * Pairing * Pairs * Parent * Parent Cell * Plasmids * Replication * Sequencing * Set * Sets * Sex * Sex Chromosomes * Somatic Cells * Species * Sperm * Telomeres * Turner Syndrome * Zygote
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  Short phrases about "Chromosomes"
  Originally created: August 01, 2010.
  Links checked: May 17, 2013.
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