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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Mantle > Crust   Michael Charnine

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    This Review contains major "Crust"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.


  1. Crust is always less dense than asthenosphere or lithospheric mantle and continental lithosphere is always less dense than oceanic lithosphere. (Web site)
  2. Crust is very closely related to and influenced by D-beat, anarcho-punk, and grindcore. (Web site)
  3. New crust is forming when magma from the mantle deep down is forced upward out of the cracks where the plates are coming apart. (Web site)
  4. Crust is constantly being created and destroyed; oceanic crust is more active than continental crust. (Web site)
  5. The crust (both oceanic and continental) is the surface of the Earth; as such, it is the coldest part of our planet. (Web site)


  1. Neither plate subducts and the crust thickens and uplifts.


  1. The two plates have continued ramming into each other, causing the crust to buckle, wrinkle, and uplift into the highest mountain range on earth. (Web site)
  2. Because both continental crusts resist subduction, the momentum of collision causes an uplift of crust, forming mountain chains. (Web site)
  3. The existence of ophiolte suites are consistent with the uplift of crust in collision zones predicted by plate tectonic theory. (Web site)

Mid-Oceanic Ridges

  1. Meanwhile, magma is continually rising along the mid-oceanic ridges, where the "recycling" process is completed by the creation of new oceanic crust.
  2. New oceanic crust, closest to the mid-oceanic ridges, is mostly basalt at shallow levels and has a rugged topography. (Web site)
  3. The farther that oceanic crust lies outward from the mid-oceanic ridges, the older the rocks. (Web site)

Rift Valleys

  1. Rift valleys, such as the Great Rift Valley, are formed by the expansion of the Earth 's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. (Web site)
  2. The divergence causes normal faults and rift valleys (grabens) to form there as a result of the tension in the crust.
  3. Numerous open fissures have been observed and mapped in the rift valleys, which is evidence that the crust is being pulled apart along the ridge.


  1. Major earthquakes are associated with the edges of plates that make up the Earth's crust, and along mid-oceanic ridges where new crust is forming.
  2. The crust is constantly moving, which is why continents move and earthquakes happen.
  3. The deep earthquakes along the zone allow seismologists to map the three dimensional surface of a subducting slab of oceanic crust and mantle. (Web site)

Plate Boundaries

  1. The different types of plate boundaries are caused by a combination of the direction of convection as well as they type of crust: continental or oceanic.
  2. This research suggests that plate boundaries may have been created similarly in the geologic past when thickened regions of crust collided with continents. (Web site)
  3. Along some plate boundaries, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, new crust is formed. (Web site)


  1. Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth 's continental crust, after feldspar. (Web site)
  2. The crust is primarily quartz (silicon dioxide) and other silicates like feldspar. (Web site)
  3. Continental crust is composed of granitic rocks which are made up of relatively lightweight minerals such as quartz and feldspar.


  1. Oceanic crust is denser because it has less silicon and more heavier elements (" mafic ") than continental crust (" felsic "). (Web site)
  2. Igneous oceanic plateaus have a ratio intermediate between continental and oceanic crust, although they are more mafic than felsic. (Web site)
  3. Continental crust has the highest amount of silicon (such rock is called felsic). (Web site)


  1. The slow flow of Earth's mantle drags the crust along, causing the continents to move, mountains to form, and volcanoes and earthquakes to occur.
  2. These volatiles rise into the crust above and trigger melt which exits the earth's crust through volcanoes in the form of a volcanic arc.
  3. Orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, which consume crust, produce volcanoes, and build island arcs.


  1. This means that the fluid and microbes are coming from deeper within the ocean crust, perhaps as deep as half a mile below the seafloor. (Web site)
  2. Deep-Ocean Trench An elongated depression in the seafloor produced by bending of oceanic crust during subduction. (Web site)

Spreading Center

  1. As the two plates move apart at a spreading center, a fault cracks through the crust near the axis. (Web site)
  2. A divergent plate boundary between two slabs of oceanic crust is generally referred to as a spreading center or spreading ridge. (Web site)

Spreading Centers

  1. All the old oceanic crust is going into these systems as new crust is formed at the spreading centers. (Web site)
  2. Expanding Earth (not in book) - Model holds that the Earth has expanded through its history, so that overall new crust is being created at spreading centers.
  3. Transform fault systems can also connect spreading centers to subduction zones or other transform fault systems within the continental crust. (Web site)


  1. New lava flows may still be very hot for months or even years afterwards and may be only covered with a thin crust of solid rock. (Web site)
  2. A scarcity of crust from the first few billion years of Earth history reflects the extremely rapid recycling of juvenile material on a very hot early Earth. (Web site)
  3. Because the earth is very hot inside, a current of heat flows from the core to the crust.

Hot Magma

  1. A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, ash and gases to escape from below the surface.
  2. The crust of the earth is melted allowing the hot magma to move to the earths surface. (Web site)
  3. A plume of hot magma rises from deep within the mantle pushing up the crust and causing pressure forcing the continent to break and separate. (Web site)


  1. Geophysicists used to think that the movement of magma from the base of the crust, and then out of the volcano in an eruption, took centuries or more.
  2. A lake of molten lava in the volcano's main crater broke through a crust of solid rock about five days before the eruption. (Web site)
  3. In the crust below the eruption, the magma cools, forming a dike of volcanic rock (basalt).

Basaltic Magma

  1. The crust is pulled apart and a basaltic magma is produced and then rises upward and emplaces itself on the sea floor as a pillow lava. (Web site)
  2. Here, basaltic magma is erupted at the oceanic ridge and is intruded beneath the ridge where it forms new oceanic crust.
  3. The asthenosphere is also the source of the basaltic magma that makes up much of the oceanic crust and rises through volcanic vents on the ocean floor. (Web site)


  1. In geology, a rift is a place where the Earth 's crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart.
  2. While the creation of new crust adds mass to Iceland on both sides of the boundary, it also creates a rift along the boundary. (Web site)
  3. Along the rift (the boundary where the pieces of the crust are diverging), lie a string of salty lakes, volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers. (Web site)


  1. In the late Oligocene Epoch regional tensional forces became dominant and rifting was initiated as the crust and uppermost mantle began extending.
  2. There is speculation by some geologists that rifting may be developing in the Great Basin as the crust here is measureably thinning.
  3. Rifting began as magma welled up through the weakness in the crust, creating a volcanic rift zone. (Web site)


  1. The melt generated by decompression migrates rapidly upward, until it is either extruded as basalt flows or intruded into or beneath the crust. (Web site)
  2. Friction between these moving plates will cause the oceanic crust to melt, and reduced density will force the newly formed magma to rise. (Web site)
  3. At a depth of about 100 km, the descending plate begins to melt, releasing magma and volatiles (water) into the overlying crust. (Web site)


  1. Granite forms from the melting of lighter materials than is found in the deep crust or mantle. (Web site)
  2. Melting generates magma that rises into the overlying lithosphere and may be emplaced either as intrusions or be extruded from the crust as volcanics. (Web site)
  3. The further down it moves, the hotter it becomes, until finally melting altogether at the asthenosphere and inner mantle and the crust is actually destroyed.

Convection Currents

  1. These plates move very slowly (about the rate that human fingernails grow), owing to convection currents within the mantle below the crust.
  2. Convection currents in the Earth's mantle are causing the plates to separate, creating new oceanic crust at a rate of approximately 2.9 cm each year.
  3. In this diagram, it is theorized that convection currents within the Earth's mantle cause the creation of new oceanic crust at the mid-oceanic ridges. (Web site)

Outer Core

  1. These layers consist of the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. (Web site)
  2. Felsic and mafic rocks are believed to make up most of (A) the crust, (B) the inner core, (C) the asthenosphere, or (D) the outer core.

Divergent Plate Boundaries

  1. Creation of oceanic crust is part of a continual process that occurs at divergent plate boundaries on the ocean floor.
  2. Divergent Plate Boundaries - These are boundaries where plates move away from each other, and where new oceanic crust and lithosphere are created. (Web site)
  3. Continental crust is often split along divergent plate boundaries.

Lithospheric Plates

  1. Containing both crust and the upper region of the mantle, lithospheric plates are generally considered to be approximately 60 mi (100 km) thick. (Web site)
  2. Lithospheric plates are much thicker than oceanic or continental crust.

Continental Lithosphere

  1. Some of those DARCs are subducted and become part of the continental lithosphere; others remain in the crust. (Web site)
  2. Continental lithosphere is the part of the continental crust and upper mantle that can support long term geologic loads (II p.

Oceanic Lithosphere

  1. New oceanic lithosphere is created when basalt magma from the mantle is forced up into fractures in the crust.
  2. A fore-arc setting for most ophiolites also solves the otherwise perplexing problem of how oceanic lithosphere can be emplaced on top of continental crust. (Web site)
  3. Ophiolites occur in areas where obduction (the opposite of subduction) has pushed a section of oceanic lithosphere onto continental crust.

Igneous Rocks

  1. Igneous rocks make up 95% of the rocks of the crust of the earth.
  2. This crust is made up mainly of igneous rocks, in particular granite and basalt. (Web site)
  3. Igneous rocks make up around 90% of Earths upper crust, on top of this is a layer of Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks. (Web site)

Lower Crust

  1. Essentially all lower crust and upper mantle rocks recovered from the mid-ocean ridges have been serpentinized to some degree by reaction with seawater. (Web site)
  2. Eclogite can also form from magmas that crystallize and cool within the mantle or lower crust of continents.
  3. Uplifting during their formation causes exposure of lower crust and mantle rocks on the seafloor. (Web site)


  1. The crust, which is solid and mainly made up of silicates, can be divided into continental crust and oceanic crust.
  2. Granite is currently known only on Earth where it forms a major part of continental crust. (Web site)
  3. As the rift continues to widen, the continental crust becomes progressively thinner until separation of the plates is achieved and a new ocean is created.


  1. Oceanic crust, on the other hand, is approximately 5 km thick and has a composition similar to basalt, making it significantly denser than continental crust. (Web site)
  2. Oceanic crust, due to its composition, is more dense than continental crust resulting in the continental crust floating higher on the denser upper mantle. (Web site)
  3. As the ocean widens, its crust becomes older and denser.

Average Thickness

  1. With an average thickness of 10 km, the oceanic crust is thinner than the continental crust [image crustal thickness]. (Web site)
  2. The average thickness of lithosphere covered by oceanic crust is 75 kilometers, whereas that of lithosphere covered by a continent is 125 kilometers (Fig. (Web site)


  1. The crust of the continental lithosphere is thought to be 30- to 50-km thick, while the oceanic crust is much thinner, at an estimated 5- to 10-km thick. (Web site)
  2. There was considerably greater tectonic and volcanic activity; the mantle was much more fluid and the crust much thinner.
  3. Compared to the other layers the crust is much thinner.

Uppermost Part

  1. The lithosphere includes the crust (whether continental or oceanic) and the uppermost part of the upper mantle.
  2. The outermost part of the Earth 's interior is made up of two layers: the lithosphere comprising the crust and the solidified uppermost part of the mantle.
  3. The uppermost part of the mantle is solid and, along with the crust, forms the lithosphere. (Web site)

Plate Tectonics

  1. The uppermost part of the mantle is rigid and, along with the crust, forms the 'plates' of plate tectonics. (Web site)
  2. In plate tectonics, a boundary between two lithospheric plates, along which new crust is being created.
  3. But the majority of our planet's early crust has already been mashed and recycled into Earth's interior several times over by plate tectonics. (Web site)

Divergent Boundary

  1. A divergent boundary is a place where the tectonic plates are separating, and they pull the crust apart. (Web site)
  2. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. (Web site)
  3. The crust is not destroyed here as it is at a convergent boundary, nor is crust created as it is at a divergent boundary. (Web site)

Divergent Boundaries

  1. There are four types of plate boundaries: Divergent boundaries -- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. (Web site)
  2. Accordingly, as crust is created at divergent boundaries, oceanic crust must be destroyed in areas of subduction underneath the lighter continental crust. (Web site)
  3. New oceanic crust is created at divergent boundaries that are sites of sea-floor spreading.


  1. Antisect were an Anarcho-punk (and later on Crust punk) band formed in 1982 in Daventry, Northamptonshire, UK. (Web site)
  2. Crust punk fashion is generally exaggerated hardcore attire, and crust punk ideology is in the same vein as anarcho-punk. (Web site)


  1. Although not the same genre, crust is closely related to d-beat, anarcho-punk, thrashcore, and grindcore. (Web site)
  2. The band espouses anarchistic lyrics, and their sound draws from crust punk, D-beat, grindcore, thrashcore, and powerviolence.
  3. Dropdead Providence, Rhode Island, USA 1990–present A hardcore punk who draw on crust punk, powerviolence, D-beat, and thrashcore.

Ocean Floor

  1. The lithosphere includes the crust (the rocks of the continents and the ocean floor) and the uppermost part of the mantle beneath the crust. (Web site)
  2. Includes sedimentary rocks deposited on the deep ocean floor as well as the basalt of the oceanic crust. (Web site)
  3. The rocks of the ocean floor differ from the continental crust not only in composition, but also in age.


  1. The crust and mantle are separated by the Moho or Mohorovicic discontinuity (see earth and seismology). (Web site)
  2. The base of the crust is defined seismologically by the Mohorovicic discontinuity, or Moho.
  3. Beneath the central Santa Maria Basin, the top of the subducted oceanic crust is at a depth of about 14-16 km and the Moho is at 19-21 km. (Web site)

Underlying Mantle

  1. This is a boundary surface or the sharp seismic velocity discontinuity that separates the Earth's crust from the underlying mantle. (Web site)
  2. In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or moon, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle. (Web site)
  3. This crust is not a solid shell; it is broken up into huge, thick plates that drift atop the soft, underlying mantle. (Web site)

Partial Melting

  1. A typical theory is as follows: partial melting of the mantle generates a basaltic magma, which does not immediately ascend into the crust.
  2. It descends below the asthenosphere, a zone of partial melting of the crust.
  3. Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification of magma, a silicate liquid generated by partial melting of the upper mantle or the lower crust. (Web site)

Tectonic Plate

  1. The massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate. (Web site)

Tectonic Plates

  1. The tectonic plates are composed of two types of crust (lithosphere): thicker continental and thin oceanic crust.
  2. The crust is very thin at mid-oceanic ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates. (Web site)
  3. Earth's continents drift on tectonic plates of crust that float on the underlying mantle.

Subduction Zone

  1. This magma then migrates upwards and erupts, forming chains of volcanoes and adding to the crust above the subduction zone.
  2. The plate with the older (cooler, more dense) crust descends into the subduction zone.
  3. Plate tectonic mechanisms move rocks throughout the crust, so even sedimentary and metamorphic rocks can become melted again in a subduction zone. (Web site)

Subduction Zones

  1. Transform faults occur on land, connect segments of the oceanic ridge, and provide the mechanism by which crust can be carried to subduction zones.
  2. Volcanoes form where magma burns through the crust, at subduction zones, at spreading centers, or at “hot spots” like Hawaii. (Web site)
  3. These subduction zones are places of intense tectonic activity because of the melting of crust in the asthenosphere. (Web site)


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  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Places > Earth
  3. Magma
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    * Asthenosphere * Beneath * Boundary * Continent * Continental Crust * Continents * Crust Beneath * Crust Punk * Crust Punks * Dense * Earth * Fault * Form * Granite * Lighter * Lithosphere * Magma * Magmas * Mantle * Mid-Ocean Ridges * Minerals * Molten Rock * Ocean * Oceanic * Oceanic Crust * Oceans * Ocean Crust * Outer * Outer Crust * Plate * Plates * Ridge * Ridges * Rock * Rocks * Spreading * Subducted * Subduction * Surface * Thick * Thicker * Thickness * Uppermost Mantle * Weight
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  Originally created: April 04, 2011.
  Links checked: May 08, 2013.
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