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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Mitochondria > Cytosol   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
ER MEMBRANE
FLUID PORTION
PRECURSOR PROTEINS
BETA BARREL STRUCTURE
ASSOCIATED
ORDER
SPACE
ABSENCE
COMPONENTS
PORTION
WATER
FLUID
FIRST
PLACE
METABOLISM
OXIDIZED
IMPORT
PROCESS
LOCALIZED
FATTY ACIDS
GRANULES
NUCLEUS
FORM
DISULFIDE BONDS
COMPLEX MIXTURE
CYTOSKELETON
LUMEN
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS
SYNTHESIS
TRNAS
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
SEQUESTER
TUBERIN
BAX
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
MEMBRANES
MEMBRANE
ORGANELLE
MALATE
NADH
CELLS
MAMMALIAN CELLS
PLASMA MEMBRANE
TRANSLOCATION
RIBOSOME
ENZYMES
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Cytosol"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell.
  2. The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here.
  3. Cytosol was prepared from the homogenate by centrifugation for 30 min at 10 000 g in an SW34 rotor (Sorvall).
  4. The cytosol is the site of most metabolism in prokaryotes,[ 6] and a large proportion of the metabolism of eukaryotes.
  5. The cytosol is the portion of a cell that is not enclosed within membrane-bound organelles.

Er Membrane

  1. Once secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane separates them from the proteins that will remain in the cytosol.

Fluid Portion

  1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (fluid portion) of a cell and has a dual role.

Precursor Proteins

  1. There they code for precursor proteins that are made in the cytosol for subsequent import into organelles.

Beta Barrel Structure

  1. Human peptidylprolyl isomerase A, which exists in cytosol, has a beta barrel structure with two alpha helices and a beta-sheet.

Associated

  1. YFP fusions of enolase and aldolase clearly were associated with mitochondria as well as distributed throughout the cytosol (Figure 2).

Order

  1. This means that ornithine must be transported into mitochondria, and citrulline must be exported to the cytosol, in order for the cycle to proceed.

Space

  1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (the space between organelles), more or less in solution.

Absence

  1. In the absence of the mitosomal targeting presequence, GFP accumulated in the cytosol (lower panels).

Components

  1. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.

Portion

  1. The cytosol is the clear portion of the cytoplasm.

Water

  1. Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood.

Fluid

  1. The cytosol refers only to the fluid, and not to the organelles.

First

  1. Note that ADP from the cytosol [ATP (cyt)] first binds to the translocate.

Place

  1. The reactions take place in the cytosol.

Metabolism

  1. The obvious need for an "old fashioned" review comes from the gateway role in metabolism of the ATP transfer to the cytosol from mitochondria.

Oxidized

  1. Free fatty acids from adipose tissue enter the cytosol, become activated, and must enter the mitochondria to be oxidized.

Import

  1. The mitosome has no genome, so it must import all its proteins from the cytosol.

Process

  1. The cytosol contains dissolved nutrients, helps break down waste products, and moves material around the cell through a process called cytoplasmic streaming.

Localized

  1. AmA1 was found to be present in the cytosol and not localized within protein bodies.

Fatty Acids

  1. Fatty acids are activated in the cytosol by esterification with Coenzyme A (CoA) to form acyl-CoA (RCO-CoA, where R is the fatty acid acyl group).

Granules

  1. For norepinephrine to be acted upon by PNMT in the cytosol, it must first be shipped out of granules of the chromaffin cells.

Nucleus

  1. About 19% of the proteins are found in multiple compartments, in which a high proportion (36.4%) is localized to both cytosol and nucleus.
  2. The unphosphorylated STAT proteins shuttles between cytosol and the nucleus waiting for its activation signal.
  3. In plant cells, SR proteins mainly localize to nuclear speckles, and several can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytosol (12 – 15).

Form

  1. The charged form, however, is often more soluble in blood and cytosol, both aqueous environments.
  2. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol in many cell types.

Disulfide Bonds

  1. The disulfide bonds are extremely rare in cytosolic proteins, since the cytosol is generally a reducing environment.

Complex Mixture

  1. The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water.

Cytoskeleton

  1. Protein molecules that do not bind to cell membranes or the cytoskeleton are dissolved in the cytosol.

Lumen

  1. The phospholipid membrane encloses a space, the cisternal space (or lumen), from the cytosol, which is continuous with the perinuclear space.

Signal Transduction Pathways

  1. Ca 2+ ions are usually kept at nanomolar levels in the cytosol of plant cells, and act in a number of signal transduction pathways.

Synthesis

  1. The cytosol contains many 80S ribosomes, on which protein synthesis takes place.
  2. Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol.

Trnas

  1. RNA polymerase III is responsible for the synthesis of tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.

Mitochondrial Matrix

  1. Fatty acids are oxidized inside the mitochondrial matrix but the fatty acids to be oxidized come from the cytosol.

Sequester

  1. As cytosolic free Ca 2+ increases, Ca 2+ -binding proteins, mitochondria, and microsomes initially sequester the Ca 2+ from cytosol.

Tuberin

  1. In response to AKT phosphorylation, 14-3-3 proteins bind tuberin and sequester it in the cytosol.
  2. Phosphorylation of tuberin by AKT causes tuberin to become sequestered by 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol.
  3. In response to growth signals, tuberin is phosphorylated by AKT and translocates to the cytosol, relieving Rheb repression.

Bax

  1. Movement of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria during apoptosis.
  2. Bax resides in the cytosol as a quiescent protein and translocates into mitochondria after apoptotic stimuli.
  3. On loss of IL-7 in a dependent cell line, Bax protein translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria, where it integrated into the mitochondrial membrane.

Transcription Factors

  1. A critical step in regulating many transcriptional responses is the import of transcription factors from the cytosol to the nucleus.

Membranes

  1. The first is Glycolysis cycle, is the splitting of sugar and occurs in the cytosol, the fluid between membranes.

Membrane

  1. This vesicle will move through the cytosol and fuse with the membrane of the Golgi apparatus.

Organelle

  1. In order to do so the Golgi transports substances such as nucleotide sugars into the organelle from the cytosol.
  2. The majority of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear encoded and thus have to be transported into the organelle from the cytosol.

Malate

  1. However, the malate produced in the cytosol is, unlike lactate, not excreted but transported into the mitochondria for further degradation.

Nadh

  1. This malate is then converted to oxaloacetate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, generating a reduced NADH in the cytosol.

Cells

  1. Reactions of the urea cycle occur in both the mitochondria and cytosol of liver cells.
  2. Intracellular fluid - the fluid inside cells, also known as the cytosol.
  3. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood.

Mammalian Cells

  1. Tong WH, Rouault TA. Evidence for two distinct iron-sulfur cluster assembly complexes in the cytosol and in the mitochondria of mammalian cells.

Plasma Membrane

  1. When the hybrid gene was overexpressed, the protein was found associated with the plasma membrane in the cytosol.
  2. Activity at the plasma membrane and nucleus is long-lived, whereas that in the cytosol is short-lived.

Translocation

  1. Phosphorylation of MARCKS causes its translocation from the membrane to the cytosol.
  2. Phosphorylation of FGFR1 at Ser777 by p38 MAPK regulates translocation of exogenous FGF1 to cytosol and nucleus.

Ribosome

  1. The translation of mRNA into protein by a ribosome takes place within the cytosol.
  2. The pre-piece is then cleaved off within the lumen of the ER and the ribosome released back into the cytosol.

Enzymes

  1. Also present in the cytosol are larger proteins and enzymes used in reactions within the cell.
  2. Enzymes within the ER membrane synthesize phospholipids from raw materials in the cytosol.

Categories

  1. Mitochondria
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Information > Structure > Organelles
  3. Cytoplasm
  4. Nutrition > Nutrients > Carbohydrates > Glycolysis
  5. Nature > Life > Cells > Eukaryotic Cells

Related Keywords

    * Acetyl-Coa * Cell * Cytochrome * Cytoplasm * Endoplasmic Reticulum * Eukaryotes * Eukaryotic Cells * Glycolysis * Mitochondria * Organelles * Prokaryotes * Proteins * Pyruvate
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  Short phrases about "Cytosol"
  Originally created: April 04, 2011.
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