Review of Short Phrases and Links|
This Review contains major "Cytosol"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.
- The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell.
- The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here.
- Cytosol was prepared from the homogenate by centrifugation for 30 min at 10 000 g in an SW34 rotor (Sorvall).
- The cytosol is the site of most metabolism in prokaryotes,[ 6] and a large proportion of the metabolism of eukaryotes.
- The cytosol is the portion of a cell that is not enclosed within membrane-bound organelles.
- Once secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane separates them from the proteins that will remain in the cytosol.
- Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (fluid portion) of a cell and has a dual role.
- There they code for precursor proteins that are made in the cytosol for subsequent import into organelles.
- Human peptidylprolyl isomerase A, which exists in cytosol, has a beta barrel structure with two alpha helices and a beta-sheet.
- YFP fusions of enolase and aldolase clearly were associated with mitochondria as well as distributed throughout the cytosol (Figure 2).
- This means that ornithine must be transported into mitochondria, and citrulline must be exported to the cytosol, in order for the cycle to proceed.
- Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (the space between organelles), more or less in solution.
- In the absence of the mitosomal targeting presequence, GFP accumulated in the cytosol (lower panels).
- This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.
- The cytosol is the clear portion of the cytoplasm.
- Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood.
- The cytosol refers only to the fluid, and not to the organelles.
- Note that ADP from the cytosol [ATP (cyt)] first binds to the translocate.
- The reactions take place in the cytosol.
- The obvious need for an "old fashioned" review comes from the gateway role in metabolism of the ATP transfer to the cytosol from mitochondria.
- Free fatty acids from adipose tissue enter the cytosol, become activated, and must enter the mitochondria to be oxidized.
- The mitosome has no genome, so it must import all its proteins from the cytosol.
- The cytosol contains dissolved nutrients, helps break down waste products, and moves material around the cell through a process called cytoplasmic streaming.
- AmA1 was found to be present in the cytosol and not localized within protein bodies.
- Fatty acids are activated in the cytosol by esterification with Coenzyme A (CoA) to form acyl-CoA (RCO-CoA, where R is the fatty acid acyl group).
- For norepinephrine to be acted upon by PNMT in the cytosol, it must first be shipped out of granules of the chromaffin cells.
- About 19% of the proteins are found in multiple compartments, in which a high proportion (36.4%) is localized to both cytosol and nucleus.
- The unphosphorylated STAT proteins shuttles between cytosol and the nucleus waiting for its activation signal.
- In plant cells, SR proteins mainly localize to nuclear speckles, and several can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytosol (12 – 15).
- The charged form, however, is often more soluble in blood and cytosol, both aqueous environments.
- Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol in many cell types.
- The disulfide bonds are extremely rare in cytosolic proteins, since the cytosol is generally a reducing environment.
- The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water.
- Protein molecules that do not bind to cell membranes or the cytoskeleton are dissolved in the cytosol.
- The phospholipid membrane encloses a space, the cisternal space (or lumen), from the cytosol, which is continuous with the perinuclear space.
- Ca 2+ ions are usually kept at nanomolar levels in the cytosol of plant cells, and act in a number of signal transduction pathways.
- The cytosol contains many 80S ribosomes, on which protein synthesis takes place.
- Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol.
- RNA polymerase III is responsible for the synthesis of tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.
- Fatty acids are oxidized inside the mitochondrial matrix but the fatty acids to be oxidized come from the cytosol.
- As cytosolic free Ca 2+ increases, Ca 2+ -binding proteins, mitochondria, and microsomes initially sequester the Ca 2+ from cytosol.
- In response to AKT phosphorylation, 14-3-3 proteins bind tuberin and sequester it in the cytosol.
- Phosphorylation of tuberin by AKT causes tuberin to become sequestered by 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol.
- In response to growth signals, tuberin is phosphorylated by AKT and translocates to the cytosol, relieving Rheb repression.
- Movement of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria during apoptosis.
- Bax resides in the cytosol as a quiescent protein and translocates into mitochondria after apoptotic stimuli.
- On loss of IL-7 in a dependent cell line, Bax protein translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria, where it integrated into the mitochondrial membrane.
- A critical step in regulating many transcriptional responses is the import of transcription factors from the cytosol to the nucleus.
- The first is Glycolysis cycle, is the splitting of sugar and occurs in the cytosol, the fluid between membranes.
- This vesicle will move through the cytosol and fuse with the membrane of the Golgi apparatus.
- In order to do so the Golgi transports substances such as nucleotide sugars into the organelle from the cytosol.
- The majority of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear encoded and thus have to be transported into the organelle from the cytosol.
- However, the malate produced in the cytosol is, unlike lactate, not excreted but transported into the mitochondria for further degradation.
- This malate is then converted to oxaloacetate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, generating a reduced NADH in the cytosol.
- Reactions of the urea cycle occur in both the mitochondria and cytosol of liver cells.
- Intracellular fluid - the fluid inside cells, also known as the cytosol.
- Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood.
- Tong WH, Rouault TA. Evidence for two distinct iron-sulfur cluster assembly complexes in the cytosol and in the mitochondria of mammalian cells.
- When the hybrid gene was overexpressed, the protein was found associated with the plasma membrane in the cytosol.
- Activity at the plasma membrane and nucleus is long-lived, whereas that in the cytosol is short-lived.
- Phosphorylation of MARCKS causes its translocation from the membrane to the cytosol.
- Phosphorylation of FGFR1 at Ser777 by p38 MAPK regulates translocation of exogenous FGF1 to cytosol and nucleus.
- The translation of mRNA into protein by a ribosome takes place within the cytosol.
- The pre-piece is then cleaved off within the lumen of the ER and the ribosome released back into the cytosol.
- Also present in the cytosol are larger proteins and enzymes used in reactions within the cell.
- Enzymes within the ER membrane synthesize phospholipids from raw materials in the cytosol.
- Encyclopedia of Keywords > Information > Structure > Organelles
- Nutrition > Nutrients > Carbohydrates > Glycolysis
- Nature > Life > Cells > Eukaryotic Cells
* Endoplasmic Reticulum
* Eukaryotic Cells
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