Review of Short Phrases and Links|
This Review contains major "Data"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.
- Data is a physical concept, a raw sequence of bits and bytes stored on a computer.
- Data is a collection of these single facts, statistics, or observations.
- Data is the raw material of a system supplied by data producers and is used by information consumers to create information.
- Data is the lowest level of abstraction, information is the next level, and finally, knowledge is the highest level among all three.
- Data is a set of unrelated information, and as such is of no use until it is properly evaluated.
- One data connection will usually carry a stream of packets of data that will not necessarily be all routed the same way over the physical network.
- At this point, the data connection has been established and the server will send the requested data over the connection.
- If no data is sent to the client in this amount of time, the data connection is closed.
- Session beans don't represent records or data in the database like entity beans but can access data in the database.
- When a program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the data is there.
- In addition to defining and organizing the data, data modeling may also impose constraints or limitations on the data placed within the structure.
- In computer science, data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance.
- This process is called data modeling and results in a picture of object relationships.
- A data model is not just a way of structuring data: it also defines a set of operations that can be performed on the data.
- XQuery 1.0 and XPath 2.0 share the same data model and support the same functions and operators.
- The data model will tend to determine the query languages that are available to access the database.
- Data Communications: The transmission and reception of data between locations.
- In data communications, cleartext is the form of a message or data which is transferred or stored without cryptographic protection.
- Packet switching, now the dominant basis for both data and voice communication worldwide, was a new and important concept in data communications.
- Voice over Internet Protocol is the converting of the voice signal to data (IP) packets and then sending the packets over an IP network.
- ATM provides a high-speed transmission for all types of communications, from voice to video to data, over one network with small, fixed-size cells.
- DSL is even faster than ISDN. And DSL sends data and voice over the same line so you talk on the phone while you connect to the Internet.
- In computer science, a jump list is a data structure which resembles an ordered doubly linked list.
- During this pass a data structure is built to hold information about each Java Virtual Machine instruction in the method.
- All of this information can be encoded in a small (around 100 bytes) data structure whose length is independent of the size of the message it describes.
- FTP or File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer data from one computer to another over the Internet, or through a network.
- In response to these limitations, software has been developed to enable computers within a network to transfer data among each other.
- Establishing an FTP (file transfer protocol) connection is one of the ways you can transfer data over a network.
- Access to the network is via Frame Relay Access Devices (FRADs) which translate the data (eg Ethernet, Token Ring) into frame relay packets.
- When a computer has a message or data that needs to be sent to another in the network, it inserts a token into one of the empty frames.
- When the token arrives at a particular computer (or device), the recipient is allowed to transmit data onto the network.
- The specific selection of a data interface is not critical to this invention, only that the system contains a method to initialize data.
- In addition, SMDS data units are large enough to encapsulate entire IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.5, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) frames.
- Note: Ring topology is used by several data-link layer protocols like Ethernet, Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).
- A router is a device that forwards traffic between networks based on network layer information in the data and on routing tables maintained by the router.
- Every device on the network must have a unique MAC address to ensure proper receiving and transmission of data.
- Only the device whose MAC address and IP address matches the destination MAC address and destination IP address carried by the data will copy the data.
- Data Communications Equipment (DCE) - a type of network component that facilitates the sending of data such as a modem or multiplexer.
- Functional description of a set of data, timing and control interchange circuits for use at a digital interface between a DTE and a DCE.
- The modem is said to be DCE (Data Communications Equipment) and the computer is said to be DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).
- Because XML is a data description language, XML documents do not carry information about how to display the data.
- Perl & XML is aimed at Perl programmers who need to work with XML documents and data.
- Unlike HTML, tags in XML documents describe the semantics of the data and not how it is to be displayed.
- Incorporated within the HTML is the XML that supplies the data, the information, contained within our XML document.
- The XML object model is a collection of objects that you use to access and manipulate the data stored in an XML document.
- Now let's look at how you use JAXB to access an XML document such as books.xml and display its data.
- Data Transmission - The sending of data from one place to another by means of signals over a channel.
- Data Communication - The transfer of information between functional units by means of data transmission according to a protocol.
- Voice over IP is a form of IP data transmission that permits the transport of voice packets over a public or private IP network.
- Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process.
- The methods used to control how data is sent on the network are the MAC methods that we discussed briefly in the "Data Transmission" section.
- This module introduces you to the 7 layers of OSI model and explains how data is encapsulated for data transmission.
- The unit of data created by the network layer protocol, which consists of the transport layer data plus the network header, is called a datagram.
- However, whatever protocol the transport layer uses, it relies completely on the network and lower-layer protocols to carry the data to its destination.
- Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data.
- Networks and Data Transfer uses the OSI reference model to show how networks encapsulate data and transfer it throughout a network.
- When a network device needs to send data to another device on the same network, it knows the source and destination network addresses for the data transfer.
- Bandwidth (Data Transfer): The amount of data that you are allowed to transfer (usually monthly).
- A binary transfer is a transfer of data between two computers where the contents of the data stream are not altered during transmission.
- IPSec: Internet Protocol Security is one such protocol that enables encryption and also authentication of every IP packet that moves in the data stream.
- Port 20 is a data stream which transfers the data between the client and the server.
- Total length (16 bits): This is the total packet length, including header and data, in bytes.
- Packet Length - This field gives the entire packet size, including header and data, in bytes.
- The 256-bit block of data (any size of data block will do) is decomposed into 16 sub-blocks of 16 bits, or blocks of two bytes.
- Bandwidth - The amount of data that is able to be sent over a network, measured in Kilobytes and Megabytes per second (Kbps and Mbps).
- In digital systems, bandwidth is expressed as bits (of data) per second (bps) or Kbps or Mbps.
- Category 4 cabling is used in Token Ring networks and can transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps.
- When your computer is transmitting data, this layer gets the data and divides it into several packets to be transmitted over the network.
- TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) A network protocol for transmitting data that requires acknowledgement from the recipient of data sent.
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol) A network protocol for transmitting data that does not require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data that is sent.
- Descriptive Statistics fit a normal distribution to the data: Mean is the arithmetic mean (or 'average') of the values.
- Comparing the mean to the median for a set of data can give you an idea how widely the values in your dataset are spread apart.
- Data from a positively skewed (skewed to the right) distribution have values that are bunched together below the mean, but have a long tail above the mean.
- If there is an even number of data points, then the median is the average of the middle two points.
- If many data points are very different from the mean, then the standard deviation is high (further from zero).
- To understand standard deviation, keep in mind that variance is the average of the squared differences between data points and the mean.
- Public key cryptography uses a pair of keys for encryption - a public key for encrypting data, and a private key for decrypting data.
- Cryptography is a method of encrypting data so that only a specific, private key can unlock, or decrypt, the information.
- A Block Cipher is a method for encrypting data in chunks (several or many contiguous bits) as opposed to encoding bit-by-bit like a stream cipher.
- Encrypting Data Once initialized, data is encrypted using the following function and transmitted with the CCP and MPPE headers.
- By encrypting data you are protecting your data from other curious users who would like to know the data that is present.
- When encrypting data a session key is generated to encrypt the data.
- Thus, if the mean is intended as a measure of the location of the center of the data, it is, in a sense, biased when outliers are present.
- For example, the distribution of the data may be characterized by either bimodality or the presence of outliers.
- A value far from most others in a set of data: "Outliers make statistical analyses difficult" (Harvey Motulsky).
- Analysis - 1 Way Tests Calculate descriptive statistics: the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis of the data.
- The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples are clustered around the mean in a set of data.
- Secondly, the standard error of the mean can refer to an estimate of that standard deviation, computed from the sample of data being analysed at the time.
- In this case, a source application encodes data from its own native format as XML, and a target application decodes the XML data into its own native format.
- IBM's DB2 database provides relational database storage, plus pureXML to quickly serve data and reduce your work in the management of XML data.
- An XML file can also contain processing instructions that give commands or information to an application that is processing the XML data.
- Databases tailored for the storage of XML data represent an exciting new opportunity for improvement in the storage and manipulation of data and metadata.
- If you do not need all the XML data in memory, the SAX API allows you to process the data as it is parsed.
- Often it is useful to construct new XML data in the result (i.e., data that did not exist in the input document).
- Data flow control or handshaking is a method used for communicating between a DCE and a DTE to prevent data loss during transmission.
- The DCE controls this circuit to indicate to the DTE the type of data sent on the Receive line.
- DCD ● 8 Data Set Ready OOB control signal: Tells DTE that DCE is ready to receive commands or data.
- DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - The equipment, such as a computer or terminal, that provides data in the form of digital signals for transmission.
- Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Any source or destination of data connected to the local area network.
- This cable connects two dissimilar devices, for example, a data terminal equipment (DTE) device and a data communications equipment (DCE) device.
- Data warehousing was introduced to help solve these data and performance issues.
- Data warehousing is an efficient way to manage and report on data that is from a variety of sources, non uniform and scattered throughout a company.
- Data warehousing is an efficient way to manage demand for lots of information from lots of users.
- This article assumes that data is always loaded into a data warehouse, whereas the term ETL can in fact refer to a process that loads any database.
- An ODS may contain 30 to 60 days of information, while a data warehouse typically contains years of data.
- The operational database is the source of data for the data warehouse.
- The authenticity of the received data can be verified by the receiver who computes a MAC on the data using the same key as the sender.
- In traditional encryption schemes, the sender and the receiver use the same key to encrypt and decrypt data.
- The protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from sender to receiver.
- The TCP checks that no bytes are damaged by using a checksum computed at the sender for each block of data before it is sent, and checked at the receiver.
- Next come TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - the protocols by which one host sends data to another.
- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol which makes sure that packets of data are shipped and received in the intended order.
- A method of encryption in which the same key is used for both encryption and decryption of the data.
- In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them.
- The data transferred from one system to another over public network can be protected by the method of encryption.
- On the other hand, block ciphers encrypt one block of data at a time and are used more often for data encryption.
- Data Encryption Standard (DES) A widely-used method of data encryption using a private (secret) key.
- Cipher An algorithm or system for data encryption.
- If data encryption is selected and negotiated, data is encrypted before transmission.
- Data encryption is achieved through the use of an algorithm that transforms data from its intelligible form to cipher.
- Data Encryption The data to be encrypted is treated as sequence of octets.
- Firewalls only address the issues of data integrity, confidentiality and authentication of data that is behind the firewall.
- A packet typically contains a header with addressing information, data, and a checksum to insure data integrity.
- UDP does guarantee data integrity, and it does this by adding a checksum to the data before transmission.
- The FTP server must open a new connection to the client when it sends data.
- When a transfer is being set up, it always initiated by the client; however, either the client or the server may be the sender of data.
- In FTP all data is passed back and forth between the client and server without the use of encryption.
- The main purpose of MAC layer 130 is to encapsulate a data packet within a MAC header according to the DOCSIS standard for transmission of data.
- Bridge A bridge reads the outermost section of data on the data packet, to tell where the message is going.
- If the data collides with another data packet, both computers "back off," or wait, then try again to send the data until receipt is acknowledged.
- While IP handles the actual delivery of data, TCP tracks the data packets to efficiently route a message through the Internet.
- This is very important when sending multiple data packets from a large file, so the receiving computer knows when it has all of the necessary data.
- Above the physical layer, Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets, blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered.
- The TCP packet will be placed inside an IP data packet with a source and destination IP address along with some other data for network management.
- Each data packet contains one block of data, and must be acknowledged by an acknowledgment packet before the next packet can be sent.
- The MAC determines how a data packet is sent across the network, including the source and destination of the packet.
- When data packets are reached at hub, they are broadcasted to all the computers unlike a switch and only the destined computer receives the data.
- In general, the link layer takes data from the higher layers, creates data packets, and sends the packets out through the physical layer.
- A router is a network device that delivers Internet Protocol (IP) data packets to and from multiple computers or devices on a network.
- RK contributed to the study design, recruited patients, was involved in data collection and data analysis and had a major role in writing the paper.
- Diagnostics In statistical methods and data analysis, a method designed to detect departures from standard conditions or the assumed model.
- A source for information about statistics and data analysis, including statistical software, and resampling methods in particular.
- Information > Communication > Networks > Network
- Science > Mathematics > Sets > Set
- Information > Information Technology > Computers > Computer
- Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Systems > Process
* Data Analysis
* Data Field
* Data Link
* Data Mining
* Data Network
* Data Point
* Data Source
* Data Type
* Encrypted Data
* Sensitive Data
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