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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Haploid > Diploid   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
OUTCROSSING
NUCLEAR GENOME
CENTROMERES
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS
DIPLOID GENERATION
DIPLOID CHROMOSOME SET
DIPLOID NUCELLUS
DIPLOID DANDELIONS
DIPLOID VEGETATIVE MYCELIUM
DIPLOID FORMATION
PLANT BODY
CONSPICUOUS PLANT
DIFFERENT DIPLOID SPECIES
RESULTING DIPLOID ZYGOTE
DIPLOID CELL RESULTING
DIPLOID ZYGOTE NUCLEUS
EINKORN WHEAT
DIPLOID STATES
DIPLOID HUMAN GENOME
FORM DIPLOID NUCLEI
MEIOTIC DIVISION
TRIPLOID
DIPLOID ZYGOSPORE
DIKARYOTIC
DIPLOID BASIDIUM
TETRAPLOID
DIPLOID PHASE
MITOTIC DIVISION
HAPLOID GAMETES
DIVISIONS
PRESENCE
CREATION
DIPLOID STAGE
STAGE
PARENT
FAVORABLE
PRODUCING
WHEAT
EGG CELL
SPERM
MATING
HYPHAE
OFFSPRING
PROCESS
FUSION
POPULATION
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Diploid"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Haploid and diploid are terms referring to the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell.

Outcrossing

  1. Silene nutans is a diploid, mainly outcrossing, herbaceous, perennial plant [3].

Nuclear Genome

  1. The nuclear genome (being diploid) is divided into 46 linear DNA molecules, each contained in a different chromosome.

Centromeres

  1. The cell is still considered diploid because it still contains the same number of centromeres.

Multicellular Organisms

  1. In multicellular organisms, there is an intermediary step between the diploid and haploid transition where the organism grows.

Diploid Generation

  1. The diploid generation produces spores.

Diploid Chromosome Set

  1. Most importantly, eggs need a diploid chromosome set in most species in order to develop normally.

Diploid Nucellus

  1. A form of apomixis where a nucellar embryo arises from the diploid nucellus tissue surrounding the embryo sac.

Diploid Dandelions

  1. Diploid dandelions develop seeds after cross- pollination and are outcrossing, or self-incompatible.

Diploid Vegetative Mycelium

  1. The resulting spore may germinate to produce a diploid vegetative mycelium or it may undergo meiosis to produce a haploid mycelium.

Diploid Formation

  1. The mycelium within this structure remains as a dikaryon, diploid formation only occurring within the modified hyphal tip called the basidium.

Plant Body

  1. In the sporophyte phase, a diploid (see ploidy) plant body grows and eventually produces spores through meiosis.

Conspicuous Plant

  1. The diploid (2n), spore-producing generation of the plant reproductive cycle, the dominant and conspicuous plant in the vascular plants.

Different Diploid Species

  1. The new species were formed when one diploid species fertilized a different diploid species and produced a tetraploid offspring.

Resulting Diploid Zygote

  1. The resulting diploid zygote develops into the seed embryo, which is the diploid sporophyte of the next generation.

Diploid Cell Resulting

  1. A diploid cell resulting from fertilization of an egg by a sperm cell.

Diploid Zygote Nucleus

  1. Meiosis in the diploid zygote nucleus occurs almost immediately after fusion, and results in the production of four haploid nuclei.

Einkorn Wheat

  1. Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) is diploid (2 chromosomes).[1] Most tetraploid wheats (e.g.

Diploid States

  1. Finally, in the sporic life cycle, the living organism alternates between haploid and diploid states.

Diploid Human Genome

  1. The diploid human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes, and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (the X and Y chromosomes).

Form Diploid Nuclei

  1. Inside this multinucleate structure, the heterokaryotic nuclei fuse to form diploid nuclei that undergo meiosis.
  2. Actual fusion to form diploid nuclei is called karyogamy, and may not occur until sporangia are formed.

Meiotic Division

  1. Four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell called a microsporocyte, after meiotic division.

Triploid

  1. Thus endosperm cells are usually triploid (containing three sets of chromosomes) but can vary widely from diploid (2n) to 15n.

Diploid Zygospore

  1. Sexual reproduction involved the fusion of haploid mating hyphae to produce a diploid zygospore.
  2. Eventually, the diploid zygospore undergoes meiosis to produce haploid meiospore nuclei, which are proliferated in number by subsequent mitotic divisions.

Dikaryotic

  1. The vegetative state of Oomycetes is diploid, whereas true fungi are haploid or dikaryotic.
  2. The fungal life cycle is somewhat complex; all true fungi go through a haploid (1n) stage, a diploid (2n) stage, and a dikaryotic (n+n) stage.

Diploid Basidium

  1. Each cell swells to form a diploid basidium, which rapidly undergoes meiosis and yields four haploid nuclei.
  2. The paired nuclei fuse to form the diploid basidium, which generates haploid basidiospores.

Tetraploid

  1. The number of florets per spikelet increased with ploidy level: two florets in diploid, four in tetraploid and five in hexaploid wheats.
  2. For the genus Beta, the chromosome number possibilities are 9 (haploid), 18 (diploid), 27 (tetraploid), 36 (triploid), 45 (pentaploid) or 54 (hexaploid).
  3. Florouracil(5-Florouracil, 5FU): Flow cytometry a measurement method that determines the fraction of cells that are diploid, tetraploid, aneuploid, etc.

Diploid Phase

  1. During sexual reproduction there is a diploid phase (with two sets of chromosomes), which as a rule is very short.
  2. The organism is haploid, and has no diploid phase, except for the sexual sporangium.
  3. The dominant phase is haploid, while the diploid phase is only a few cells (often only the single celled zygote, as in Chlamydomonas).

Mitotic Division

  1. The zygote divides by mitotic division and grows into a sporophyte that is diploid.

Haploid Gametes

  1. The haploid gametes produced by (most) diploid organisms are monoploid, and these can combine to form a diploid zygote.
  2. Fertilzation happens when the two haploid gametes fuse together, giving rise to a diploid cell that is totipotent, i.e.

Divisions

  1. A diploid cell duplicates itself, then undergoes two divisions (tetraploid to diploid to haploid), in the process forming four haploid cells.

Presence

  1. Diploid (DNA Ploidy) The presence of a normal number of chromosomes in cancer cells.
  2. In the presence of a nonfermentable carbon source, diploid cells starved for nitrogen will undergo meiosis.

Creation

  1. Diploid y in true fungi only occurs for a single cell division during the creation of reproductive propagules.

Diploid Stage

  1. Haplontic - diploid stage quickly followed by meiosis without any mitotic divisions.

Stage

  1. The zygote is the only diploid stage in the life cycle.
  2. Meiosis quickly follows formation of the zygote, the only diploid stage.
  3. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte.

Parent

  1. Mammals are diploid organisms, which means they have two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.

Favorable

  1. Zygospores (diploid) are produced and remain dormant until conditions are favorable d.
  2. When the environment is favorable, the zygospore germinates, meiosis occurs, and diploid vegetative cells are released.

Producing

  1. These gametes then fertilize in the Fallopian tubes of the female, producing a diploid zygote.

Wheat

  1. Wheat is capable of polyploidism, or having more than two sets of chromosomes (diploid).
  2. Einkorn wheat is diploid (2x chromosomes) and can be considered the "grandfather" breed of wheat.

Egg Cell

  1. The synergid that the cells were released into degenerates and one sperm makes its way to fertilize the egg cell, producing a diploid (2 n) zygote.
  2. The development of a diploid cell into a haploid ovum or egg cell.

Sperm

  1. Fusion of the sperm with the ovacyte occurs in the Fallopian tube and the resulting diploid zygote becomes embedded in the uterus wall.

Mating

  1. In most cases, mating leads to the creation of offspring with two different alleles at the sex locus (diploid females).

Hyphae

  1. NUCLEI OF HYPHAE All fungal nuclei are HAPLOID except for transient diploid zygote that forms during sexual reproduction.
  2. The hyphae in a mushroom are (A) diploid; (B) dikaryotic; (C) monokaryotic.

Offspring

  1. Sperm cells contribute half of the genetic information to the diploid offspring.
  2. For example, in some cases transgenic animals may be haploid for a given gene and it may be desired to try to provide a diploid offspring via crossing.
  3. In automictic species the offspring can be haploid or diploid.

Process

  1. Haploid gametes are produced from diploid cells by a process called meiosis.
  2. In this process, the diploid cell in the ovule creates a new embryo.

Fusion

  1. The fusion of male and female gametes produces a diploid zygote which develops into a new sporophyte.
  2. Some have sexual cycles,involving meiosis and the fusion of gametes or gametic nuclei resulting in a diploid zygote.
  3. Sexual reproduction involved the fusion of haploid mating hyphae to produce a diploid zygospore, a process shown in Figure 4.

Population

  1. Meiosis may be delayed until after a population of diploid cells is produced.
  2. Fixation probabilities and effective population numbers in diploid populations with overlapping generations.

Categories

  1. Haploid
  2. Chromosomes
  3. Nature > Life > Animals > Zygote
  4. Meiosis
  5. Gametes

Related Keywords

    * Algae * Alleles * Ascospores * Ascus * Asexually * Asexual Reproduction * Budding * Cell * Cells * Cell Division * Chromosome * Chromosomes * Copies * Diploid Cell * Diploid Nuclei * Diploid Number * Diploid Organism * Diploid Spores * Diploid Sporophyte * Diploid Zygote * Embryo * Fertilization * Fertilized * Form * Fungi * Gametes * Genomes * Haploid * Haploid Cells * Haploid Spores * Humans * Karyogamy * Life Cycle * Life Cycles * Meiosis * Mycelium * Nuclei * Nucleus * Number * Organism * Organisms * Plants * Set * Sets * Sexual Reproduction * Species * Spores * Sporophyte * Teliospores * Yeast * Yeasts * Yeast Cells * Zygote * Zygotes
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  Originally created: April 04, 2011.
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