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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Theoretical Physics > Relativity > General Relativity > Black Holes > Entropy   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
REVERSIBLE
MIXING
RELATIONSHIP
CARDINALITY
CALCULATION
DUALITY
DISCRETE
TEXTBOOKS
PHYSICS
INCREASING
HIGH TEMPERATURE
CALCULATING
LAW
MATTER
SUPERFLUID
HORIZON
DARK ENERGY
BIG BANG
THEORY
EQUILIBRIUM
RELATED
NOTION
EQUATION
MATHEMATICALLY
OUTCOMES
VOLUME
GENERATORS
RANDOM
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
KEY
MASS
PROPORTIONAL
GRAVITY
QUANTUM GRAVITY
COSMOLOGY
STRING THEORY
PROBABILITIES
RANDOM VARIABLE
MAXIMUM ENTROPY
MAXIMUM
NUMBER
RANDOM VARIABLES
HAMMING
ENTROPY CHANGE
SPECIFIC TEMPERATURE
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Entropy"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Entropy is a concept in thermodynamics (see thermodynamic entropy), statistical mechanics and information theory.
  2. Entropy is a measure of disorder: cells are NOT disordered and so have low entropy.
  3. Entropy is a measure of evenness of a distribution of energy between parts of a system.
  4. ENTROPY is a measure of the unavailability of energy in a substance. (Web site)
  5. Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder in a system, and an entropic force would tend to move things toward the most disorderly arrangement. (Web site)

Reversible

  1. Thus, in the Carnot cycle, which is reversible, there is no change in the total entropy. (Web site)

Mixing

  1. Mixing paradox: On the change of entropy of a system before and after mixing. (Web site)

Relationship

  1. The average information going across the channel, the entropy, goes down, with no relationship to the amount of energy needed to cut the wire.
  2. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. (Web site)
  3. Thus, we would expect there to be some relationship between temperature and entropy. (Web site)

Cardinality

  1. In this paper a unified formulation of subsethood, entropy, and cardinality for interval-valued fuzzy sets (IVFSs) is presented.
  2. As a consequence, lower bounds for the topological entropy of transitive graph maps in terms of the cardinality of their splittings are obtained. (Web site)

Calculation

  1. It includes a calculation of the entropy of black holes.
  2. The possibility for application of the proposed approach to the calculation of quantum entropy of a black hole is considered.
  3. One of the results that is of most interest is his outline of the calculation of black hole entropy by counting states. (Web site)

Duality

  1. Duality predicts that the entropy of these black holes is related to the quartic invariant of the E(7,7) group. (Web site)
  2. By the Aether Wave Theory the same duality exist between the energy and entropy, as between potential and kinetic energy. (Web site)

Discrete

  1. One must take care in trying to apply properties of discrete entropy to differential entropy, since probability density functions can be greater than 1. (Web site)
  2. One measure which does so is the discrete entropy.
  3. Often, information entropy is measured in shannons, whereas the (discrete) storage space of digital devices is measured in bits. (Web site)

Textbooks

  1. The following is a list of additional definitions of entropy from a collection of textbooks. (Web site)

Physics

  1. Entropy has a precise definition within physics: it refers to the concentration or dispersal of energy at a molecular level.

Increasing

  1. Since a finite universe is an isolated system then, by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, its total entropy is constantly increasing. (Web site)
  2. But entropy is increasing as the universe evolves, just like the Second Law of Thermodynamics says it should. (Web site)

High Temperature

  1. When heat is added to a system at high temperature, the increase in entropy is small. (Web site)

Calculating

  1. Calculating the entanglement entropy between spatially separated regions allows us to probe the topological order in Laughlin and Moore-Read states.

Law

  1. Besides this, the law predicts that the entropy of an isolated system always increases with time.

Matter

  1. Having each "causal patch" become a separate universe allows each universe to contract essentially empty of matter and entropy.
  2. If you took all of the matter in our observable universe and made one big black hole, the entropy would be about 10 120. (Web site)
  3. The entropy is normalized by the variance of the component, so absolute scale doesn't matter.

Superfluid

  1. Thus, part of the fluid system's mass is transferred without any energy transfer (since the superfluid has zero entropy).

Horizon

  1. Using the first law of black hole mechanics, it follows that the entropy of a black hole is one quarter of the area of the horizon.
  2. However, the entropy from the previous cycle is spread to regions beyond the horizon during the period of dark energy domination.

Dark Energy

  1. The generic patch contains no quark, lepton or force carrier only dark energy and its entropy thereby vanishes.

Big Bang

  1. The only way to understand the origin of entropy is to understand the origin of the universe -- by asking what happened at the Big Bang, and even before. (Web site)
  2. A corollary holds the initial singularity to have minimum entropy which then rapidly increases during the first moments of the Big Bang. (Web site)
  3. Frampton and Baum circumvent the Big Bang by postulating that, at the turnaround, any remaining entropy is in patches too remote for interaction. (Web site)

Theory

  1. A key measure of information in the theory is known as entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. (Web site)
  2. The entropy associated with these degrees of freedom matches with the Wald entropy for the theory.

Equilibrium

  1. This results in an "entropy gap" pushing the system further away from equilibrium. (Web site)

Related

  1. The entropy of a system is related to the amount of information it contains.
  2. For molecular systems, uncertainty is closely related to entropy and hence has clear connections to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (Web site)
  3. This principle is vitally important to understanding the behavior of a quantity closely related to energy, called entropy.

Notion

  1. Fisher introduced the concept of Fisher information in 1925, many years before Shannon 's notion of entropy.
  2. Information entropy is available as a measure of statistical dispersion, but no notion of standard deviation or the like exists.
  3. In his recently developed theory of free probability and free entropy, Voiculescu introduces a notion of free entropy dimension.

Equation

  1. If you own a textbook with data for enthalpy and entropy, you can use this equation to predict whether or not a chemical reaction can proceed spontaneously.
  2. According to Equation (2) entropy falls as the temperature from the hot combustion source, T H, increases. (Web site)
  3. In addition, the reduction of complexity, Q, reduces the entropy due to the second term in Equation (29). (Web site)

Mathematically

  1. Mathematically, a coin flip is an example of a Bernoulli trial, and its entropy is given by the binary entropy function.
  2. He knew how the entropy of the radiation had to depend mathematically upon its energy in the high-frequency region if Wien's law held there. (Web site)

Outcomes

  1. For example, a fair coin flip (2 equally likely outcomes) will have less entropy than a roll of a die (6 equally likely outcomes).

Volume

  1. The said quantity is amount of entropy that may be increased without changing an internal energy or increasing its volume. (Web site)
  2. The entropy of a system depends on its internal energy and the external parameters, such as the volume. (Web site)
  3. Here, U is internal energy, T is temperature, S is entropy, p is pressure, and V is volume. (Web site)

Generators

  1. Entropy and generators for locally compact subshifts, Ergod.Th.
  2. It is believed that free entropy dimension of the generators of a factor of type II 1 is closely related to the minimal number of generators of the factor.

Random

  1. All the bits of the input string are assumed to be equally random, even though the entropy present in the random source may be limited. (Web site)
  2. A known configuration of classical fields has zero entropy: there is nothing random about electric and magnetic fields, or gravitational waves.

Probability Distributions

  1. In information theory, the cross entropy between two probability distributions measures the overall difference between the two distributions. (Web site)

Probability Distribution

  1. Entropy is maximized when the probability distribution is uniform.
  2. The fluctuation theorem is a statement concerning the probability distribution of the time-averaged irreversible entropy production [1], denoted. (Web site)

Key

  1. The subkey generation process is designed to preserve the entire entropy of the key and to distribute that entropy uniformly throughout the subkeys. (Web site)
  2. In a cryptosystem, entropy is the amount of disorder or randomness present in a key or in the phrase used to generate a key.
  3. The strength of the encrypted text is determined by the entropy, or degree of uncertainty, in the key and the algorithm.

Mass

  1. If, in addition, there are mass flows across the system boundaries, the total entropy of the system will also change due to this convected flow. (Web site)
  2. Law #2 (Entropy): All things (mass and energy) tend toward disorder.

Proportional

  1. Hence the surface area of a black hole is directly proportional not only to its entropy, but to its time dimension and its mass as well.
  2. Therefore, Jacob Bekenstein proposed that a black hole should have an entropy and that it should be proportional to its horizon area. (Web site)
  3. A calculation within Chern-Simons theory leads to the desired result for the entropy, proportional to the horizon area.

Gravity

  1. LQG may or may not be viable as a refinement of either gravity or geometry; entropy is calculated for a kind of hole which may or may not be a black hole.
  2. This effect of gravity has allowed the entropy of the universe to fall from its initial high value which was due to the unitial temperature uniformity.

Quantum Gravity

  1. Since Bekenstein and Hawking computed the entropy of a black hole, this computation has become a crucial litmus test for any theory of quantum gravity.

Cosmology

  1. But the entropy was lower in the past, and to understand that empirical feature of the universe we have to think about cosmology.
  2. Any questions?" Actually, as Woit states: "I don’t disagree that to understand cosmology you want to explain the low entropy at the Big Bang.

String Theory

  1. If you prefer it, I would say that string theory is the only theory of quantum gravity that has a fundmanetal derivation of the entropy of any black hole. (Web site)
  2. The one-loop contribution to the entropy of a black hole from field modes near the horizon is computed in string theory.
  3. In addition we have calculated correction to the entropy from alpha'^3*R^4 terms coming from string theory.

Probabilities

  1. The measure should be continuous, so that changing the values of the probabilities by a very small amount should only change the entropy by a small amount. (Web site)

Random Variable

  1. Intuitively, entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved when encountering a random variable.
  2. Entropy is also the shortest average message length, in bits, that can be sent to communicate the true value of the random variable to a recipient.
  3. That is, we use the entropy of the random variable S in order to save truly random bits later on. (Web site)

Maximum Entropy

  1. We can use Lagrange multipliers to find the point of maximum entropy (depending on the probabilities).
  2. For a given mean and variance, the corresponding normal distribution is the continuous distribution with the maximum entropy. (Web site)
  3. Thus, as long suspected, black holes have the maximum entropy for given mass and size which is allowed by quantum theory and general relativity.

Maximum

  1. If a system is at equilibrium, by definition no spontaneous processes occur, and therefore the system is at maximum entropy. (Web site)
  2. While the random number generator was used to generate 128-bit keys, the maximum entropy was around 20 bits.
  3. Randomly generated keys aren't necessarily better, because now the random number generator must produce keys with maximum entropy.

Number

  1. In this case, the entropy increases with the number of outcomes.
  2. If all the outcomes (letters in the example above) are equally likely then increasing the number of letters should always increase the entropy. (Web site)
  3. Such choices may be considered to add information that reduces the entropy (related to number of internal choices) to produce the same external product line. (Web site)

Random Variables

  1. The independent components are random variables of minimum entropy constructed from linear combinations of the input features.

Hamming

  1. Hamming distance Joint entropy – is the measure how much entropy is contained in a joint system of two random variables.

Entropy Change

  1. Entropy change has often been defined as a change to a more disordered state at a molecular level. (Web site)
  2. The fragility of the liquid is, in this case, controlled by the entropy change in the elementary excitation process. (Web site)
  3. We can now deduce an important fact about the entropy change during any thermodynamic transformation, not just a cycle. (Web site)

Specific Temperature

  1. The thermodynamic concept of entropy can be described qualitatively as a measure of energy dispersal at a specific temperature. (Web site)

Categories

  1. Theoretical Physics > Relativity > General Relativity > Black Holes
  2. Measure
  3. Encyclopedia of Finance. > Technology > Energy
  4. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Systems > System
  5. Random Variable

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  Originally created: June 24, 2008.
  Links checked: June 28, 2013.
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