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Galactose       Article     History   Tree Map
  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Home > Cooking > Foods > Glucose > Galactose   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
HYDROLYSIS
GALACTOSE INTOLERANCE
SIMPLE SUGARS GLUCOSE
BODIES
COMPONENT
METABOLISM
PRESENT
FHA
CARBON
HIGH LEVELS
VEGETABLES
HUMAN BODY
AMINO ACIDS
INGESTED
BROKEN
DEFICIENCY
SWEETER
ALKALINE
GLUCOSAMINE
INTESTINE
SMALL INTESTINE
OVARIES
OVARIAN
BLOOD
LAB WORK
FORMATION
CELLS
SIALIC
MANNOSE
MALTOSE
DISACCHARIDE
SIMPLE SUGARS
MONOSACCHARIDE
MONOSACCHARIDES
GALACTOSEMIA
MILK PRODUCTS
DIET
GLYCOLYSIS
TRANSPORTER
BODY
BLOODSTREAM
SUBUNITS
BREAK
CARBOHYDRATES
RAFFINOSE
PROCESS
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Galactose"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Galactose is a simple sugar that infants can break down effectively, because they have a variety of enzymes in the body to do that.
  2. Galactose (Gal) is a type of sugar that is less sweet than glucose.
  3. Galactose is a simple sugar derived from the breakdown of the milk sugar lactose.
  4. Galactose is an essential glyconutrient in the formation of the cell messaging substances, glycoforms.
  5. Galactose is a monosaccharide – a form of sugar and is one of the essential sugars or glyconutrients needed by our bodies.

Hydrolysis

  1. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme lactase, a β-galactosidase.
  2. For example, stachyose upon hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose and two molecules of galactose.

Galactose Intolerance

  1. Rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption (Clozaril tablets contain lactose).

Simple Sugars Glucose

  1. Lactose is composed of the simple sugars glucose and galactose.

Bodies

  1. In contrast, a galactosemic individual who consumes galactose can cause permanent damage to their bodies.

Component

  1. Some researchers have speculated that galactose, a component of lactose, might be the culprit in dairy products.
  2. Researchers hypothesize that galactose, a component of the milk sugar lactose, may damage ovarian cells, making them more susceptible to cancer.

Metabolism

  1. Lactose and galactose intake and metabolism in relation to the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Present

  1. Mannose and mannuronic acid are often present, as well as galactose and galacturonic acid.

Fha

  1. FHA is a cell surface structure that binds galactose on sulfatide (a sulfated glycolipid on ciliated epithelium cells).
  2. FHA binds to galactose residues on a sulfated glycolipid called sulfatide which is very common on the surface of ciliated cells.

Carbon

  1. The position of the -OH group on the carbon (#4) is the only distinction between glucose and galactose.

High Levels

  1. Galactose can be toxic in high levels.

Vegetables

  1. Naturally, Galactose is obtainable from a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Human Body

  1. In the human body, glucose is changed into galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose.

Amino Acids

  1. The biopolymer can contain DNA, RNA or amino acids or sugar units (e.g., glucose, fructose, galactose and the like).

Ingested

  1. When Galactose is ingested, around 30% is converted to glycogen, although the preferred substance for this is glucose.

Broken

  1. The milk sugar lactose is broken down in the body into another sugar, galactose.

Deficiency

  1. Deficiency of beta-D-glucosidase would not lead to accumulation of galactose.

Sweeter

  1. Because glucose and galactose are sweeter than lactose, lactase produces a more pleasant taste.

Alkaline

  1. The galactose is isomerized under alkaline conditions to D-tagatose by calcium hydroxide.

Glucosamine

  1. Glucosamine - a glucose or galactose molecule with an amine group attached.

Intestine

  1. Diarrhea in GGM is osmotic, being caused by accumulation of unabsorbed glucose and galactose in the intestine.

Small Intestine

  1. Some people have a defective gene that causes carbohydrate intolerance or the inability to absorb glucose and galactose in the small intestine.

Ovaries

  1. Galactose is thought to have toxic effects for the ovaries for some women, particularly those who do not readily metabolize and eliminate it.

Ovarian

  1. Galactose has been implicated in ovarian cancer 8 and cataracts.
  2. A case-control study of galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to ovarian cancer.

Blood

  1. This causes high levels of galactose in the blood or urine.

Lab Work

  1. Lab work and a galactose liver function test will also be done at this time.

Formation

  1. The formation of lactose involves the reaction of the aldehyde group of galactose with the hydroxyl group of the glucose.
  2. These glycoforms are situated on the surface of the cell membrane, and require Galactose for their formation.

Cells

  1. However, when glucose is replaced with galactose the cells grow equally well but exhibit only moderately elevated rates of lactic acid production.
  2. FHA binds to galactose residues and forms filamentous structures on the surfaces of the cells.

Sialic

  1. Sialic acid and fucose are bound to the galactose and glucose moieties of lactose, respectively.
  2. Cerebrosides have a single glucose or galactose at the 1-hydroxy position, while gangliosides have at least three sugars, one of which must be sialic acid.

Mannose

  1. Possible carbohydrates include glucose, glucosamine, galactose, galactosamine, mannose, fucose, and sialic acid.
  2. Hexoses. Glucose, mannose, galactose (all aldoses), and fructose (ketose) Pentoses.
  3. Recent studies are indicating that both Galactose and Mannose are essential in the maintenance of a balance of these substances in the body.

Maltose

  1. To further identify lactose and maltose, identify the presence of galactose in lactose in the left most structure by the upward -OH on the carbon # 4.
  2. Maltose, ribose, acetate, glutamate, and alpha-ketoglutarate were utilized poorly, and growth from galactose was scant or doubtful.

Disaccharide

  1. The glucose can be further elongated to a disaccharide by the addition of a galactose.

Simple Sugars

  1. Lactose, also known as milk sugar, is a disaccharide molecule comprising two simple sugars (glucose and galactose) linked together.
  2. For those who can digest lactose, its breakdown products are two simple sugars: glucose and galactose.

Monosaccharide

  1. The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharide s and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose.

Monosaccharides

  1. For example, most monosaccharides, such as fructose, glucose, and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates.
  2. The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose.

Galactosemia

  1. Persons with galactosemia either have very low levels of or are entirely lack the enzyme that assists the body in breaking down galactose.
  2. Galactosemia: A genetic disorder in the breakdown of the carbohydrate galactose to glucose.

Milk Products

  1. Galactose: A simple sugar found in milk products.

Diet

  1. The only treatment for classic galactosemia is eliminating lactose and galactose from the diet.
  2. The three essential sugars that you get from your diet are glucose, galactose and fucose.
  3. Galactosemia is treated by removing foods that contain galactose from the diet.

Glycolysis

  1. When glycolysis is slow, either at low glucose concentrations or in the presence of galactose, respiration is required for cells to survive.
  2. A variety of hexsoses, including fructose and galactose can be funneled into glycolysis.
  3. Other hexose sugars, such as galactose and fructose, can also be modified to undergo glycolysis.

Transporter

  1. Fructose absorption occurs via the GLUT-5[1] (fructose only) transporter, and the GLUT2 transporter, for which it competes with glucose and galactose.

Body

  1. In order for lactose to be absorbed from the intestine and into the body, it must first be split into glucose and galactose.
  2. Lactose in food (such as dairy products) is broken down by the body into glucose and galactose.
  3. Galactosemia is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease resulting from the body's inability to metabolize galactose.

Bloodstream

  1. The liver then changes the galactose into glucose, which enters the bloodstream and raises the person's blood glucose level.

Subunits

  1. Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of two subunits, a galactose and a glucose linked together.
  2. The enzyme cleaves the lactose molecule into its two subunits, the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which can then be readily absorbed.

Break

  1. Galactosemia is caused by a deficiency in one of the three enzymes needed to break down galactose.
  2. This requires the presence of an enzyme, lactase plus additional enzymes to break down the galactose into glucose.

Carbohydrates

  1. In addition to lactose, fresh milk contains other carbohydrates in small amounts, including glucose, galactose, and oligosaccharides.

Raffinose

  1. Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose, and glucose.

Process

  1. The process of breaking down the lactose (milk sugar) into galactose evidently damages the ovaries.
  2. Commercially-produced lactose-free milk is made by breaking down lactose into glucose and galactose by a process called enzymatic hydrolysis.

Categories

  1. Home > Cooking > Foods > Glucose
  2. Lactose
  3. Nutrition > Nutrients > Carbohydrates > Fructose
  4. Lactase
  5. Molecular Biology > Proteins > Enzymes > Enzyme

Related Keywords

    * Cataracts * Dairy Products * Enzyme * Enzymes * Fructose * Glucose * Lactase * Lactose * Milk * Patients * Sugar * Sugars
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  Originally created: August 01, 2010.
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