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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Glutamic > Glutamine   Michael Charnine

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  1. Glutamine is a precursor to glucose and many peptides, proteins, and nucleotides, and functions as an energy substrate for most cells [1, 8, 12].
  2. Glutamine is an important metabolic substrate for cells cultivated under in vitro conditions and is a precursor for purines, pyrimidines and phospholipids. (Web site)
  3. Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid (protein building block) that is made in the body via conversion from a relative amino acid (AA) called Glutamic acid.
  4. Glutamine is the primary source of energy for the various cells of the immune system, including T cells and macrophages. (Web site)
  5. Glutamine is a precursor of ornithine, which can be converted to citrulline by the intestine; citrulline is transformed in the kidneys to arginine.

Building Blocks

  1. By supplementing with BCAA, one can deliver the needed building blocks for both alanine and glutamine and spare muscle tissue. (Web site)


  1. For example, one study found that 5 g of orally administered glutamine doubled plasma glutamine within 30 minutes in healthy humans [16].


  1. The regulation of glutamine synthase is a perfect example of end-product inhibition or feed-back inhibition. (Web site)


  1. Ajinomoto is also a leading supplier of the Amino Acid L- Glutamine.[ citation needed] and aspartame, sold under the trade name Aminosweet. (Web site)


  1. Glutamine serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines.*5 Glutamine is the dominant amino acid in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.


  1. The results show that GGT activity with glutamic acid gamma-methyl ester as substrate was about 1.2-folds higher than that with glutamine as substrate.

Gastrointestinal Tract

  1. Glutamine An amino acid needed to maintain normal functions of the gastrointestinal tract and muscles.
  2. The ability of glutamine to nourish these immune cells may account for its positive impact on the gastrointestinal tract and immunity. (Web site)
  3. Glutamine supplementation also reduced the permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in these patients. (Web site)


  1. In the liver, glutamine is broken down to glutamate and ammonium again and the ammonium is formed into urea for excretion. (Web site)


  1. It is primarily synthesized from glutamine in the intestines but is also found naturally in trace amounts in some foods.


  1. The conversion of glutamic acid into glutamine is the only means by which ammonia in the brain can be detoxified. (Web site)
  2. Normally, ammonia is detoxified in the liver by conversion to urea and glutamine.

Large Amounts

  1. Glutamine is found in large amounts in the muscles and is readily available when needed for the synthesis of skeletal muscle proteins.

Immune Response

  1. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response.
  2. Hersh, E.M. & Brown, B.W., “Inhibition of immune response by glutamine antagonism: effect of azotomycin on lymphocyle blastogenesis,” Cancer Res. (Web site)


  1. However, even fish do not have large concentrations of ammonia in the blood because it is excreted as the amide in glutamine.


  1. If the body were to become deficient in its own production of glutamine, it is abundant in food sources such as poultry, fish, and beans. (Web site)

Digestive System

  1. Research also suggests that when glutamine levels fall, other systems may be affected, particularly the digestive system. (Web site)

Small Intestine

  1. In addition, glutamine use by the small intestine has been found to occur at a very high rate.
  2. The small intestine is by far the greatest user of glutamine in the body.


  1. Their intermediary metabolites (glutamine and proline) may also have beneficial effects in promoting recovery from trauma.
  2. Elderly people, those who suffer from trauma, cancer, and immune deficiencies also benefit from supplementing with glutamine. (Web site)
  3. Cancer, burns or trauma, excessive exercise, and certain other stressful situations to the body may cause glutamine levels to drop.


  1. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA's) are the most important for muscle recovery, along with glutamine.
  2. Since continuation of strenuous exercise requires glutamine in many organs, it is important to replenish glutamine when doing sports. (Web site)

Human Body

  1. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body.
  2. Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, non-essential amino acid in the human body.


  1. Taurine is an amino acid like glutamine that is earning more and more respect from bodybuilders and protein scientists. (Web site)
  2. Bodybuilders use this amino acid to help prevent overtraining because glutamine get used up rapidly in the training process. (Web site)
  3. Because this amino acid helps to build and maintain muscle, supplemental glutamine is useful for dieters and bodybuilders.


  1. Both Cysteine and Glutamine are principle players in the coordinated T-cell response of macrophages and lymphocytes(2).
  2. Glutamine depletion in lymphocytes prevents the formation of signals necessary for late activation. (Web site)


  1. This means that while the body can make glutamine, under extreme physical stress the demand for glutamine exceeds the body's ability to synthesize it. (Web site)
  2. Strenuous exercise, viral and bacterial infections, and stress and trauma in general cause glutamine depletion that starves the immune cells. (Web site)
  3. The heavier one trains, the greater the stress on the muscle and therefore the greater the use of glutamine. (Web site)


  1. During and following exercise or trauma, large amounts of alanine and glutamine are released from muscle. (Web site)
  2. A loss of glutamine during exercise may be a signal for protein catabolism (muscle breakdown). (Web site)
  3. Anti-catabolic effect with exercise: Oral glutamine has been shown to maintain muscle mass in catabolic patients. (Web site)


  1. Practically all proteins we consume contain some amount of glutamine, usually in the order of 4% to 8% of their total amino acid composition.
  2. Glutamine tends to favor the formation of helical structures in proteins. (Web site)
  3. By donating nitrogen, glutamine helps build proteins and repair the muscle, as well as help build up more muscle. (Web site)


  1. Glutamine regulation may be especially important in athletes, both to help ward off infections and to prevent the breakdown of muscle.
  2. When there is Glutamine depletion, there is a breakdown in muscle.
  3. Therefore, glutamine plays a dual role in muscle building: one in protein synthesis, and the other in decreasing protein breakdown in skeletal muscle.


  1. Conversion of glutamate to glutamine by amidation which is catalyzed by an enzyme called " glutamine synthase". (Web site)
  2. Glutamine, or its analogue, methionine sulfone, have no effect on the relative rate of synthesis of the enzyme. (Web site)
  3. The enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ammonia to glutamate is called glutamine synthase. (Web site)

Amino Group

  1. This reaction provides enzyme bound ammonia as a source of amino group for the amidation of glutamic acid on the tRNA to glutamine. (Web site)
  2. The amino group and the glutamate or glutamine condenses to form a five-member ring called Pyroglutamate.
  3. Glutamine is formed when an amino group is added to glutamate by the enzyme glutamine synthetase.


  1. The nitrogen is converted to urea and, to a lesser extent, to glutamine.
  2. Nitrogen is provided by glutamate and glutamine. (Web site)
  3. Glutamine is an important component in the metabolism of nitrogen. (Web site)

Proper Functioning

  1. Glutamine plays a vital role in the proper functioning of many body systems.
  2. Their proper functioning is dependent on glutamine as a metabolic fuel for growth and proliferation. (Web site)

Immune System

  1. In the immune system, glutamine is used as a metabolic fuel by fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and is also used for nucleotide synthesis.
  2. Some areas where glutamine plays particularly important roles are the brain, immune system, skeletal muscle, and GI tract.
  3. Glutamine: an AMINO ACID used by the IMMUNE SYSTEM, muscle tissue and the digestive system.


  1. Other good amino acids that are sold seperately or combined in many of the supplements you buy are leucine, taurine, and glutamine. (Web site)
  2. Herbal medications and supplements (such as licorice, marshmallow, and glutamine) probably have no role in the treatment of peptic ulcers. (Web site)
  3. In catabolic states of injury and illness, glutamine becomes conditionally-essential (requiring intake from food or supplements).

Muscle Cell

  1. In fact, glutamine alone is responsible for 35% of the nitrogen that gets into the muscle cell.


  1. A 3–oz serving of meat contains about 3–4 grams of glutamine.

Beet Juice

  1. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.


  1. As an analog to glutamine and glutamate, L theanine has been found to have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
  2. Tehnol. 31, 884-889, 2002) have reported synthesis of theanine using ethylamine and glutamine as substrates and bacterial gamma glutamyl transferase. (Web site)


  1. Among other amino acids, Khalsa stresses the benefits of glutamine, methionine and arginine.
  2. Only YkrV was able to convert ketomethiobutyrate to methionine, and it catalyzed the reaction only when glutamine was used as amino donor. (Web site)


  1. Glutamate is formed from α ketoglutarate and glutamine from glutamate. (Web site)

Immune System Function

  1. The amino acid glutamine is important for immune system function. (Web site)


  1. Athletes on high-protein diets will appreciate the fact that glutamine transports ammonia, the toxic metabolic by-product of protein breakdown, to the liver.
  2. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. (Web site)
  3. Some athletes say that glutamine helps boost the immune system.

Endurance Athletes

  1. As discussed in Part 3, glutamine is involved in acid-base balance, and studies on endurance athletes have shown depressed glutamine levels (19). (Web site)
  2. Glutamine is also used by endurance athletes to prevent a decrease in the function of the immune system after long endurance-type events such as a marathon. (Web site)

Growth Hormone Levels

  1. Those who consumed glutamine had markedly increased growth hormone levels, while the placebo group exhibited no change in growth hormone levels.

Stimulatory Effect

  1. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle.


  1. Glutamine plays a role in the removal of this toxic ammonia from the brain. (Web site)
  2. Further, the lower levels of glutamine in skeletal muscle injuries have been said to indicate its role in the synthesis of muscle protein.
  3. Aside from its role in protein synthesis, alanine is second only to glutamine in prominence as a circulating amino acid.

Gabaergic Neurons

  1. Glutamine is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of both L-glutamate and (GABA) neurotransmitters in glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons, respectively. (Web site)
  2. Moreover, selective enrichment of SAT1 in GABAergic neurons suggests that SAT1 may be the main transporter involved in glutamine uptake for GABA generation. (Web site)


  1. Additional glutamine supplementation might be beneficial should the body become depleted in BCAAs during strenuous prolonged exercise or illness.
  2. The BCAAs released to circulation may be used for protein synthesis or synthesis of alanine and glutamine.

Muscle Tissues

  1. Glutamine plays a major role in DNA synthesis and serves as a primary transporter of nitrogen into the muscle tissues.


  1. Glutamic
  2. Glutamate
  3. Ammonia
  4. Amino
  5. Muscle

Related Keywords

    * Abundant Amino * Addition * Alanine * Amide Group * Amide Groups * Amino * Amino Acids * Ammonia * Animal Proteins * Arginine * Asparagine * Asparagines * Aspartate * Aspartic * Body * Brain * Cells * Citrulline * Conditionally Essential Amino * Cysteine * Dairy Products * Effect * Enterocytes * Essential * Excess Ammonia * Excess Glutamate * Fuel Source * Gln * Glu * Gluconeogenesis * Glucose * Glutamate * Glutamic * Glutaminase * Glutamine Residues * Glutamine Supplementation * Glutamine Synthetase * Glx * Glycine * Growth Hormone * Human Hair * Hydrolysis * Immune Function * L-Glutamic * L-Glutamine * Leucine * Levels * Metabolism * Monosodium Glutamate * Muscle * Muscles * Nonessential Amino * Nutritional Supplement * Ornithine * Parenteral Nutrition * Precursor * Primary Fuel * Primary Source * Pyrimidine * Pyrimidines * Pyroglutamic * Residue * Residues * Supplement * Supplementation * Synthesis * Transamination * Tryptophan
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  Originally created: February 05, 2007.
  Links checked: March 17, 2013.
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