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  1. Hyphae are masses of intertwined filaments of cells which are the morphological unit of the fungus.
  2. Hyphae are specifically adapted for growth on solid surfaces, and to invade substrates and tissues.
  3. Hyphae are narrower than the Zygomycota and typically septate (dolipore septum).
  4. Hyphae are club-shaped with tips bearing numerous pedicels on which clusters of urediniospores are produced.
  5. Hyphae are generally quite uniform in different taxonomic groups of fungi.


  1. First, their multicellular tissue is similar to the hyphae of sac fungi and club fungi.


  1. The ascoma may originate in vegetative stromatic tissues or in hyphae.
  2. The centrum consists of all of the structures within an ascoma and includes asci, sterile hyphae, and other tissues.
  3. Anastomosis of somatic hyphae of opposite mating type leads to the dikaryotic phase only within the ascoma.

Specialized Hyphae

  1. They are typically formed at the ends of specialized hyphae, the conidiophores.
  2. Some molds also reproduce sexually through conjugation of gamete cells by the joining of two specialized hyphae.

Haploid Spores

  1. Asexual reproduction occurs most often, where haploid spores are produced in specialized hyphae that end with spore-producing structures called sporangia.
  2. Haploid spores grow into cottony tangles of hyphae called mycelia.
  3. The ascus then ruptures and the haploid spores germinate into haploid hyphae.


  1. Associations of plant roots and fungal hyphae are called mycorrhizae.
  2. The disruption of the hyphal network decreases the absorptive abilities of the mycorrhizae because the surface area spanned by the hyphae is greatly reduced.
  3. Extramatrical hyphae of mycorrhizae also bind soil particles together and thereby improve soil aggregation.

Fungal Mycelium

  1. Mycelium A fungal mycelium is a network of threadlike filaments called hyphae.


  1. Croziers resemble and function similarly to clamp connections on the dikaryotic hyphae of Basidiomycota.
  2. In contrast, Asco- and Basidiomycota and their associated asexual states generally have septate hyphae (Fig.
  3. The hyphae of Basidiomycota are septate.


  1. The septae are pierced by pores which allow most cytoplasmic constituents (but not nuclei) to travel freely between hyphae.
  2. Others have septae or cross walls in their hyphae.
  3. Arthrospores are made up of fragments of the hyphae, breaking off at the septae.


  1. In fungi, zygospores are termed chlamydospores and are formed after the fusion of hyphae of different mating types.
  2. Intercalary or terminal arthrospores (oidia) located through or at the end of the hyphae and few chlamydospores may also be produced by some species.
  3. True hyphae and chlamydospores are produced by strains of some Candida spp.

Cortical Cells

  1. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores.
  2. The hyphae in the root are able to penetrate cortical cells (endomycorrhizal habit); however, no arbuscules are formed.
  3. In Arum -type mycorrhizae, fungal hyphae spread between cortical cells and form short-lived heavily branched symbiotic structures (arbuscules) within cells.


  1. Hyphae and basidiospores from both strains of F. depauperata appear to be mostly monokaryotic with hyphae that lack clamp connections.
  2. In the final stage, each segment has two nuclei, and the hyphae grow to produce basidia and disperse basidiospores.
  3. Basidia are produced at the tips of the hyphae, in which the basidiospores will develop 13.


  1. GENERATIVE HYPHAE - thin-walled, branched hyphae which are the only kind found in monomitic basidiomata (cf.


  1. Mucor, Rhizopus and other fungi of the Order Zygomycetes: Broad, thin-walled, hyaline, often aseptate or sparsely septate hyphae are.
  2. The hyphae and the conidiophores appear hyaline initially and become darkly pigmented with age.
  3. Hyphae are hyaline, septate and thin.

Individual Cells

  1. Some species of fungi have their hyphae divided into individual cells while others have hyphae that are multinucleate tubes without individual cells.
  2. The mycelium consists of hyphae partitioned into individual cells by a septum containing a dough-nut shaped pore.


  1. The walls of hyphae are often strengthened with chitin, a polymer of N -acetylglucosamine.


  1. Basidiomycetes have hyphae with septa.
  2. The life cycle of basidiomycetes begin with the production of hyphae which may be of two types.
  3. In the sexual phase of the life cycle, basidiomycetes produce short lived haploid hyphae of the plus aand minus mating types.


  1. Aseptate: Lacking septa, often pertaining to the hyphae seen in zygomycetes (also see coenocytic).
  2. Aseptate or coenocytic (without septa) Non-septate hyphae are associated with Mucor,[ 4] some zygomycetes, and other fungi.
  3. In the zygomycetes, hyphae of the two strains contact each other and the hyphal tips each divide off to form a gamete cell.


  1. Often hyphae have only one nucleus per cell, and are therefore described as uninucleate, but some ascomycetous fungi can also be multinucleate at times.
  2. The zygomycete hyphae do not have one nucleus per cell, but rather have long multinucleate, haploid hyphae that comprise their mycelia.
  3. As the homokaryotic hyphae grow, septa form so that each cell contains one nucleus.


  1. In nonseptate (i.e., coenocytic) hyphae the nuclei are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  2. In ascomycetes, the hyphae are subdivided by porous walls through which the cytoplasm and the nuclei can pass.
  3. Protoplasmic killing occurs after fusion of unlike hyphae or after microinjection of cytoplasm or extracts into unlike strains.

Fruiting Body

  1. The key features of a fungal body are the mycelium (made up of hyphae), the fruiting body and the spores.
  2. While ascospores arise from hyphae during the meiotic cycle, all tissues forming the fruiting body arise from haploid, nondikaryotic hyphae.
  3. Fig. 25-2 hypha - hyphae - mycelium (sometimes) - fruiting body loss) 3.

Fruiting Bodies

  1. Some species grow cellular strands (hyphae) in all directions, forming a circular mat with a “fairy ring” of fruiting bodies around the outside.
  2. Mushrooms and toadstools are the fruiting bodies formed by the hyphae.
  3. Most Ascomycota produce fruiting bodies called ascocarps, composed entirely of hyphae.

Multicellular Fungi

  1. One of the biological characteristics that distinguish multicellular fungi from other organisms is their constitutional cells, or hyphae (singular, hypha).
  2. Multicellular fungi such as mushrooms have their vegetative bodies constituted mainly by filamentous hyphae.


  1. Moulds are composed of numerous, microscopic, branching hyphae known collectively as a mycelium.
  2. FIG. 2 shows structure of branching hyphae of shiitake strain Ile-1 mycelium.
  3. Instead of branching, the hyphae produce clusters of budding yeast cells at the septa (hyphal cross walls).

Cell Wall

  1. The cell wall and septa give stability and rigidity to the hyphae and may prevent loss of cytoplasm in case of local damage to cell wall and cell membrane.
  2. When the organism is producing toxins, the toxins are known to be present in the cell wall of spores and hyphae.
  3. Fungi are composed primarily of a cell wall that is constantly being extended at the apex of the hyphae.

Cell Walls

  1. The hyphae are composed of cell walls made of chitin (the same material that makes up the external skeleton of an insect), a cell membrane, and cytoplasm.
  2. Even if the hyphae are transected by cell walls as in fungi, the walls may still have open pores that allow the free movement of nuclei between 'cells'.
  3. The cell walls of the hyphae are variably composed of chitin and β-glucans, just as in Basidiomycota.


  1. Sporangia are formed at the ends of specialized hyphae called sporangiophores.
  2. In mycology, a stolon is defined as an occasionally septate hyphae, which connect sporangiophores together.
  3. Also, vegetative hyphae near sporangiophores did not stain (Fig.


  1. Nonseptate or sparsely septate, broad (6-15 m) hyphae, sporangiophores, sporangia, and spores are visualized.
  2. SEM image (color added) of fungal mycelium with hyphae (green), sporangia (orange) and spores (blue), Penicillium sp.
  3. Zoospores are cleaved in sporangia borne at terminal ends of hyphae of Aphanomyces euteiches.

Single Cells

  1. Some dimorphic species, such as Candida albicans, can switch between growth as single cells and as filamentous, multicellular hyphae.
  2. These algae-like fungi occur in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats as single cells or mycelial mats composed of multinucleate, nonseptate hyphae.


  1. Members of the core clade of Stropharia are characterized by crystalline acanthocytes among the hyphae that make up the rhizoids at the base of the mushroom.
  2. It anchors itself to the substratum with special hyphae known as rhizoids.

Asexual Spores

  1. Some fungi produce asexual spores directly from hyphae, which then germinate to produce additional mycelium.
  2. These fungi produce septate hyphae and several types of asexual spores.
  3. Asexual spores can develop again into multicellular hyphae, completing the cycle.


  1. MONOKARYON - in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, the haploid phase in which the hyphae contain only one kind of nuclei (cf.
  2. Most ascomycetes produce fruiting bodies called ascocarps, composed entirely of hyphae.
  3. The hyphae of ascomycetes are septate with pores.


  1. Fungi can exist either as single cells or make up a multicellular body known as a mycelium, which consists of filaments known as hyphae.
  2. Multicellular fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae (singular: hypha).
  3. Hyphae (hypha sing.) - filaments from which the body of the fungus is composed.


  1. Clamp connections are hyphal outgrowths that form when cells in dikaryotic hyphae divide.
  2. Mating resulted in the production of dikaryotic hyphae with fused clamp connections, basidia with cruciate septa, and basidiospores.
  3. When pairs of compatible K. mangroviensis strains are co-cultured on CMA medium, dikaryotic hyphae with clamp connections and basidia are produced [55].


  1. They illustrate how the zygosporangium is formed from the head-on meeting of two hyphae whose ends have specialized as gametangia.
  2. Gametangia are sexual structures formed from hyphae, and are the generative cells.
  3. During sexual reproduction, compatible strains form short, specialized hyphae called gametangia.


  1. No septa: For one division of fungi, Zygomycota, septa are lacking in hyphae except when reproductive bodies are formed.
  2. In the sexual reproduction of Zygomycota, two types of mating gametangia fuse to produce (A) rhizoids; (B) hyphae; (C) zygospore; (D) asexual spore.
  3. Zygomycota are characterized by large, thick-walled, coenocytic zygospores and hyphae with relatively thin walls composed of chitin and chitosan.


  1. The asci, or sac like structures that contain the spores are formed inside the hyphae before they are released.
  2. These hyphae eventually form structures called ascomata (ascocarps), on or in which the asci are formed.
  3. Asci are formed when two hyphae that are sexually compatible conjugate.

Ascogenous Hyphae

  1. Asci naked, formed from single cells or on hyphae; no ascocarps or ascogenous hyphae produced; saprobic or parasitic.
  2. Ascogenous hyphae and crozier branching patterns determine the arrangement of asci in the hymenium (a fertile layer of ascoma).
  3. The male and female nuclei pair up within the ascogonium but do not fuse; ascogenous hyphae begin to grow and septa are formed separating pairs of nuclei.

Reproductive Structures

  1. From time to time, hyphae develop reproductive structures that are partitioned from the hypha by hole less septa.
  2. The fruit bodies of Mycena haematopus are the reproductive structures produced by cellular threads or hyphae which grow in rotting wood.
  3. Coenocytic mycelium with septa separating the reproductive structures; rhizoids are formed by the hyphae at intervals of the growing stolons (hyphae).

Aerial Hyphae

  1. Hyphae involved in appearance of the thallus include the type, height, density, and types of reproductive structures of the aerial hyphae.
  2. Aerial hyphae often produce asexual reproduction propagules termed conidia(synonymous with spores).
  3. The tips of these aerial hyphae fill with cytoplasmic contents, and the nuclei undergo repeated mitosis.


  1. Pleurogenous: Born on the sides of a conidiophore or hyphae.
  2. Conidiophore - Specialized hyphae on which conidia are formed.
  3. Macronematous: Having a conidiophore that is morphologically different from the vegetative hyphae.


  1. Fungal parts involved in spore production such as hyphae, conidiophores, phialides, and fruiting bodies, among others.
  2. These naked spores, or conidia, develop in long chains or clusters at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores.
  3. Asexual reproduction results in the formation of spores called conidia at the tips of special hyphae called conidiophores.


  1. Certain yeasts produce all three types of structures; blastoconidia, pseudohyphae, and hyphae.
  2. Yeasts may produce pseudohyphae (elongated blastoconidia) and "true" hyphae.
  3. These are differentiated from the "true" hyphae of molds by the "pinching" of the pseudohyphae seen at the ends of the individual segments.


  1. Later, Delgado and Cook [ 23] showed that the hyphae found in basidiomata are dikaryotic whereas basidia are monokaryotic (i.e.
  2. Hyphae of Hymenomycetes; The mycelium; Mitospores, basidia and basidiospores; Cystidia, pseudocystidia and hyphidia; and Pigment topography).
  3. Some of these hyphae produce basidia, such as the cells lining the "gills" under the cap of gilled mushrooms.

Dikaryotic Hyphae

  1. The dikaryotic hyphae may be protected and nourished by differentiated haploid hyphae which form a fruiting body (the ascoma; plural ascomata).
  2. The two join (plasmogamy) and produce a series of binucleate, dikaryotic hyphae that reach above the ground and form the fruiting body or basidioma.
  3. In ascomycetes, dikaryotic hyphae of the hymenium (the spore-bearing tissue layer) form a characteristic hook at the hyphal septum.

Vegetative Body

  1. The vegetative body of a fungus, consisting of a mass of slender filaments called hyphae.


  1. A typical fungus consists of a vegetative body (mycelium) made up of individual branches (hyphae) which may or may not have cross-walls (septa).
  2. Hyphae of most zygomycetes are wide, thin-walled, and coenocytic - continuous tubes with no cross-walls.
  3. Some fungi are aseptate; that is, their hyphae are not divided into cells by cross-walls.


  1. Mycelium
  2. Nature > Life > Organisms > Fungi
  3. Spores
  4. Life > Organisms > Fungi > Fungus
  5. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Form

Related Keywords

    * Ascocarp * Aseptate * Aseptate Hyphae * Branched * Branched Hyphae * Cells * Coenocytic * Coenocytic Hyphae * Conidia * Form * Forming * Form Hyphae * Fungal Hyphae * Fungi * Fungus * Growing * Growing Hyphae * Haploid Hyphae * Haustoria * Hypha * Hyphae Form * Hyphae Growing * Mass * Masses * Mold * Molds * Mushrooms * Mycelia * Mycelium * Nuclei * Nutrients * Opposite Mating Types * Plasmogamy * Septate * Septate Hyphae * Sexually * Singular * Soil * Spore * Spores * Substrate * Tip * Tips * Vegetative Hyphae * Walls * Yeast * Yeasts
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