
Review of Short Phrases and Links 
This Review contains major "Identical Particles" related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.
 Systems of identical particles.
 This has a large area of potential applications, from symmetric function theory to problems of quantum mechanics for a number of identical particles.
 Quantum mechanics also revealed a new kind of symmetry, that of exchange of identical particles.
 The importance of the symmetry in a system of identical particles is often overlooked.
 Species of identical particles include elementary particles such as electrons, as well as composite microscopic particles such as atoms.
 Abstract. ^ Electrons are identical particles, a fact which is sometimes referred to as "indistinguishability of electrons".
 The symmetry between identical particles, however, does not exist in the classical theory.
 It will be a symmetry which includes the gauge symmetries and perhaps also the symmetry of identical particles.
 For bosons, any number of identical particles can occupy the same quantum state, as with, for instance, lasers and BoseEinstein condensation.
 Identical particles, or indistinguishable particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
 Therefore, identical particles exhibit statistical bulk behavior markedly different from classical distinguishable particles.
 We investigate the effects of fuzzy measurements on spin entanglement for identical particles, both fermions and bosons.
 For a detailed description of the differences between fermions and bosons, see the article on identical particles.
 These ideas apply only to identical particles, because if different particles are interchanged the wave function will certainly be different.
 Bosons have wave functions which are symmetric under the interchange of identical particles.
 F–D statistics applies to identical particles with halfinteger spin in a system in thermal equilibrium.
Identical Particles
 Fermions have wave functions which are antisymmetric under the interchange of identical particles.
 Electrons are identical particles because they cannot be distinguished from each other by their intrinsic physical properties.
Categories
 HalfInteger Spin
 Different Particles
 Thermal Equilibrium
 Wave Functions
 Antisymmetric

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