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  1. Isotopes - one of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but differing in atomic weight and mass number.
  2. Isotopes are atoms of the same element (that is, with the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus), but having different numbers of neutrons.
  3. Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number).
  4. Isotopes are used in a number of medical tests.
  5. Isotopes were then explained as elements with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons within the nucleus.


  1. Fourteen isotopes of einsteinium are now recognized.
  2. Sixteen isotopes of mendelevium are known. (Web site)
  3. The isotopes of erbium range in atomic weight from 144.957 amu (Er-145) to 173.944 amu (Er-174).
  4. The isotopes of californium range in atomic weight from 237.062 u ( 237 Cf) to 256.093 u ( 256 Cf). (Web site)
  5. The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for cold fusion reactions producing roentgenium isotopes directly.


  1. Eleven isotopes of element 103 have been synthesized with 262 Lr being the longest lived with a half-life of 216 minutes.
  2. Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109 Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115 Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours.


  1. There are two stable isotopes, 63 Cu and 65 Cu, along with a couple dozen radioisotopes.
  2. Elements 43 and 61 (technetium and promethium) also have no stable isotopes, and decay.
  3. Isotopes Magnesium-26 is a stable isotope that has found application in isotopic geology, similar to that of aluminium.
  4. There are two natural isotopes of iridium, and many radioisotopes, the most stable being Ir-192 with a half-life of 73.83 days.

Mass Number

  1. Isotopes of protactinium ranging in mass number from 215 to 238 are known. (Web site)
  2. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number.
  3. Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44.
  4. A white metallic transuranic element of the actinide series, having isotopes with mass numbers from 237 to 246 and half-lives from 25 minutes to 7,950 years. (Web site)


  1. Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain a different number of neutrons are said to be different isotopes of the element.
  2. Unique among all stable isotopes, it has no neutrons.

Chemical Properties

  1. All three of the isotopes of carbon have the same chemical properties.
  2. The isotopes of a particular element have virtually identical chemical properties. (Web site)


  1. This synthetic element quickly decays: its isotopes of mass 267 to 273 have half-lives measured in microseconds. (Web site)
  2. The primary decay products before Ti-48 are element 21 ( scandium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23 ( vanadium) isotopes.
  3. For isotopes lighter than the most stable isotope, 98 Tc, the primary decay mode is electron capture, giving molybdenum. (Web site)
  4. All can decay into isotopes of element 72 ( hafnium) by alpha emission; 180 W has been observed to have a half-life of (1.8 -- 0.2)--10 18 yr. (Web site)
  5. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another or formed mercury isotopes, which beta decay into thallium. (Web site)

Occur Naturally

  1. There are 25 known radioactive isotopes of lead, some of which occur naturally in small amounts.
  2. Isotopes of all elements heavier than bismuth are radioactive; some occur naturally because they have long half-lives. (Web site)

Primary Products After

  1. The primary decay products before Lu-175 are element 70 ( ytterbium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 72 ( hafnium) isotopes.
  2. The primary decay products before 142 Nd are element Pr ( praseodymium) isotopes and the primary products after are element Pm ( promethium) isotopes. (Web site)
  3. The primary decay products before 153 Eu are isotopes of samarium (Sm) and the primary products after are isotopes of gadolinium (Gd).

Radioactive Isotopes

  1. If radioactive isotopes are used, they can be detected by the radiation they emit (this is called radioisotopic labeling).
  2. If radioactive isotopes are used, they can be detected by the radiation they emit (this is radioisotopic labelling). (Web site)
  3. The waste also contains radioactive isotopes of the transuranic elements neptunium, americium, and curium.

Decay Products Before

  1. The primary decay products before Er-166 are element 67 ( holmium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element 69 ( thulium) isotopes.
  2. The primary decay products before 164-Dy are terbium isotopes, and the primary products after are holmium isotopes.
  3. The primary decay products before 159-Tb are element Gd ( gadolinium) isotopes, and the primary products behind are element Dy ( dysprosium) isotopes. (Web site)

Spontaneous Fission

  1. It has several isotopes, some of which are fissile and some of which undergo spontaneous fission, releasing neutrons. (Web site)
  2. More recently, a study of hassium isotopes allowed the synthesis of an atom of 263 Rf decaying by spontaneous fission with a short half-life of 8 seconds. (Web site)


  1. They reported a 9.40 MeV and a 9.70 MeV alpha-activity and assigned the decays to the isotopes 260 105 or 261 105. (Web site)
  2. They were able to observe two new isotopes, assigned to 291 116 and 290 116. (Web site)


  1. Hassium transmutes to known isotopes of seaborgium, rutherfordium, nobelium, and fermium. (Web site)
  2. The Berkeley and Dubna teams have subsequently produced more than a half dozen isotopes of nobelium; nobelium-255 (three-minute half-life) is the stablest. (Web site)

Alpha Decay

  1. Like carbon, some isotopes of various elements are radioactive and decay into other elements upon radiating an alpha or beta particle.
  2. There are 13 known isotopes of boron, the shortest-lived isotope is 7 B which decays through proton emission and alpha decay. (Web site)
  3. They were unable to detect any SF, indicating the formation of isotopes decaying primarily by alpha decay. (Web site)


  1. Isotopes of fermium have been produced by neutron bombardment of plutonium. (Web site)
  2. The isotopes of fermium range in atomic weight from 242.073 u ( 242 Fm) to 259.101 u ( 259 Fm). (Web site)

Naturally Occurring

  1. Naturally occurring barium is a mix of seven stable isotopes.
  2. Although the only naturally occurring isotope (thulium-169) is stable, there are 15 unstable isotopes. (Web site)
  3. Isotopes Naturally occurring actinium is composed of 1 radioactive isotope; with 227-Ac being the most abundant (100% natural abundance). (Web site)


  1. In 1977, all doubt was dispelled by the L X-ray elemental detection of lawrencium isotopes from the reaction 249 Cf( 15 N,4n) 260 Db.
  2. This reaction was studied in 1971 by the team at the LBNL in their large study of lawrencium isotopes. (Web site)

Known Isotopes

  1. All known isotopes of francium are highly unstable, therefore knowledge of the properties of this element only comes from radiochemical procedures.
  2. The most stable isotope, technetium-98, has a half-life of 4.2 million years; most of the other 30 known isotopes are much less stable. (Web site)
  3. Caesium has at least 39 known isotopes, which is more than any other element except francium. (Web site)
  4. The known isotopes of lutetium range in atomic weight from 149.973 ( 150 Lu) to 183.961 ( 184 Lu). (Web site)


  1. The syntheses of at least 10 isotopes of rutherfordium, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 msec (Rf-254) to 65 sec (Rf-261), have been confirmed. (Web site)
  2. The assignment to rutherfordium isotopes was later retracted. (Web site)

Remaining Radioactive

  1. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 10 hours and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 1 minute.
  2. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half lives that are less than 3 hours and the majority of these have half lives that are less than 1 minute.
  3. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2.7 years, and the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 20 minutes.
  4. Twenty isotopes, all of which are radioactive, are known; the most stable is fermium-257, with a half-life of about 100 days. (Web site)
  5. The 10 isotopes of berkelium that are known are all radioactive; the element has not been found in the earth's crust. (Web site)


  1. All hassium isotopes were identified by time correlations to known isotopes of lighter elements using single-event detection. (Web site)
  2. Later studies by the GSI team on the synthesis of element 112 and hassium isotopes produced conflicting data. (Web site)

Main Article

  1. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of hydrogen Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, has one proton and one electron.
  2. Main article Isotopes of protactinium List of isotopes - Uranium.

Seven Isotopes

  1. Naturally occurring gadolinium is a mixture of seven isotopes; ten additional isotopes are known.
  2. The other seven isotopes of actinium have very short half-lives ranging from 10 days to less than 1 min. (Web site)


  1. Carbon atoms may have different numbers of neutrons, which are known as isotopes of the element.
  2. There are 20 known isotopes of neptunium. (Web site)
  3. Twenty-one isotopes of europium are known, most of them unstable. (Web site)
  4. More than 30 other isotopes of francium are known; some are prepared by bombarding thorium with protons, deuterons, or alpha particles. (Web site)
  5. For the isotopes with an even number of nucleons, since technetium has an odd number of protons, any isotope must also have an odd number of neutrons.


  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Atoms
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Chemistry
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature
  4. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Materials
  5. Glossaries > Glossary of Chemical Elements /


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  Originally created: May 07, 2008.
  Links checked: April 27, 2013.
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