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  1. Latitude - The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.
  2. Latitude is the angular distance north or south from the equator to a particular location.
  3. The latitude is the number of degrees north or south of the Earth's equator.
  4. Latitude is the term for the distance from the middle of the circle, or, in the case of the Earth, the equator.
  5. Latitude is a series of concentric circles running parallel to the equator and extending to both poles.


  1. Ecliptic latitude is measured from 0-- to 90-- north (+) or south (---) of the ecliptic.
  2. It corresponds approximately to one minute of latitude along any meridian.


  1. This gave the mariner a measure of Latitude.
  2. Therefore, only the most overcast of days prevented the navigators from computing the latitude.
  3. It is the farthest northern latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead.
  4. Pound: The U.S. customary unit of force defined as the weight of the standard pound at sea level and at the latitude of 45 o.

Coordinate System

  1. The geographic coordinate system is a latitude and longitude coordinate system.
  2. A geographical coordinate system is a system that uses latitude and longitude to describe points on the spherical surface of the globe.
  3. The standard geographic coordinate systems generally give the axes in the order of (latitude, longitude).


  1. In other words, the same point on the earth---s surface can be described by different latitude and longitude values depending on the reference datum.
  2. Meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude together form a grid by which any position on the earth's surface can be specified.
  3. Latitude and longitude values can be based on several different geodetic system s or datum s, the most common being the WGS 84 used by all GPS equipment.


  1. The parallels of latitude are extended outward from the globe, parallel to the equator, as parallel planes intersecting the cylinder.
  2. They trace circles on the surface of the Earth, but the only parallel that is a great circle is the equator (latitude=0 degrees).
  3. Other latitude lines are not great circles, because they are smaller than the equator.


  1. For planets other than Earth, such as Mars, geographic and geocentric latitude are called "planetographic" and "planetocentric" latitude, respectively.
  2. Observe that these zones only vaguely correspond to geographic latitude.

South Pole

  1. The equator is latitude 0°, and the North Pole and South Pole are latitudes 90°N and 90°S, respectively.
  2. The Equator has a latitude of 0 degrees, and the North and South Poles are at 90 degrees.


  1. For the next two centuries, sextants and chronometers were used in combination to provide latitude and longitude information.
  2. The local hour angle is then added to the Greenwich hour angle to obtain the longitude where the position line passes through the assumed latitude.
  3. LONGITUDE BY CHRONOMETER - This method uses an assumed latitude and calculates the longitude that a position line crosses it.


  1. Latitude (--) Lines of latitude appear straight and horizontal in this projection, but are actually circular with different radii.
  2. Lines of latitude are parallel to the equator, but lines of longitude are curved in such a way that area distortion is minimal.
  3. For maps of the Earth, a projection consists of 1) a graticule of lines representing parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude or 2) a grid.


  1. For example, the angle to the North Star for a person at 30° latitude will be about 30°.
  2. The angle the North Star makes with respect to the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer.
  3. The geodetic latitude of a point is the angle between the equatorial plane and a line normal to the reference ellipsoid.


  1. For example, Baltimore, Maryland (in the USA) has a latitude of 39.3-- North, and a longitude of 76.6-- West ().
  2. Latitude tells how far north or south of the equator a place is, and longitude tells how far it is east or west of the Greenwich meridian.


  1. Also from the reference point, an east-west line, following a true parallel of latitude, was projected to the limits of the area.
  2. For this reason east-west lines, or lines of latitude, are commonly referred to as parallels of latitude, or simply parallels.


  1. The angle analogous to the latitude in the celestial sphere we call declination.
  2. Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator.
  3. Altitude of celestial pole = observer's latitude.
  4. Angle celestial equator (and any star path) makes with horizon = 90 - observer's latitude.
  5. Altitude: The -latitude- of the celestial body, measuring from the horizon up to the zenith of an observer (90 degrees).

Same Latitude

  1. Lines joining points of the same latitude are called parallels, and they trace concentric circles on the surface of the earth.
  2. At any point north of the equator the angle from the horizon to the North Star (its altitude) is the same as the latitude from which that angle was taken.

Nautical Mile

  1. The length of an arcdegree of latitude (north-south) is about 60 nautical miles, 111 kilometres or 69 statute miles at any latitude.
  2. Each degree of latitude equals 60 Nautical miles and each minute equals 1 Nautical mile.
  3. Nautical Mile: The distance of one degree of latitude; approximately 6,076 feet; about 796 longer than the statute mile of 5,280 feet.


  1. The circles of longitude, the meridians, meet at the geographical poles, with the west-east width of a second being dependent on the latitude.
  2. All locations with a given latitude are collectively referred to as a circle of latitude.
  3. The circle will be centered on the celestial object's latitude and longitude.
  4. Arctic Circle: An imaginary circle on the surface of the earth at 66.5-N latitude, or, 23.5- south of the North Pole.
  5. The Antarctic Circle is an imaginary circle at latitude 66-30' S, around the south pole.


  1. Their latitude does not change, and is always zero over the equator.
  2. The equator divides the planet into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere, and has a latitude of 0--.
  3. Lines of latitude are designated from zero to 90 degrees north and south of the Equator.
  4. We treat the equator as zero degrees of latitude, and a north to south line through Greenwich, UK, as zero degrees of longitude.


  1. By the definition of geodetic latitude, the length of a minute of arc depends on the radius of curvature.
  2. Thus, a minute of latitude (measured on the vertical scale of the chart) is used as the definition of one nautical mile.
  3. The system definition can also include average m and p factors in the project area make a crude computation of latitude and longitude possible.


  1. Around 400, metallurgy allowed construction of astrolabes graduated in degrees, which replaced the wooden latitude instruments for night use.
  2. The reference latitude is the equator and each hemisphere is divided into ninety equal portions, each representing one degree of latitude.
  3. LL2UTM requires the latitude and longitude in decimal degrees and returns the UTM Northing and Easting and the zone information.
  4. To simplify the digitization of maps, degrees of latitude in the southern hemisphere are often assigned negative values (0 to -90-).
  5. Continuing along the coast of Cuba, Columbus again tried a quadrant latitude reading on November 21, and again came up with 42 degrees.

Degrees North

  1. The North Pole has a latitude of 90 degrees North; the South Pole has a latitude of 90 degrees South.
  2. Then either calculating the distance by multiplying the measured distance by the scaling factor or by counting degrees and minutes of latitude.
  3. If, for example, the star measured forty degrees above the horizon, the sailor would know that he was at a latitude of approximately forty degrees north.

Determine Latitude

  1. The North Star has been historically used by explorers to determine their latitude.
  2. The sextant is an astronomical instrument that is used to determine latitude for navigation.

Determining Latitude

  1. Determining latitude by the sun was a little more difficult since the sun's altitude at noon during the year changes for a given location.
  2. The quadrant, a quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge, was a common instrument to assist in determining latitude.


  1. Unlike latitude, which has the equator as a natural starting position, there is no natural starting position for longitude.
  2. As angles are widely used for measurement in navigation, two types of angle are shown on charts; bearings and the longitude and latitude of positions.
  3. The Prime Meridian and the Equator are the reference planes used to define latitude and longitude.
  4. This grid system evolved into lines of latitude and longitude.
  5. In western geodesy the equator, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and then lines of latitude and longitude were used to locate positions on the earth.


  1. A quadrangle is a four-sided area bounded by two lines (parallels) of latitude and two lines of longitude (meridians) on a map.
  2. Two additional numeric characters designate the number of minutes of latitude north of the one degree quadrangle boundary latitude.


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  Originally created: March 17, 2008.
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