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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Atoms > Molecule   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
CHEMICAL FORMULA
DEPROTONATION
NUCLEOPHILE
ATP MOLECULES
NADH
HYDROXYL GROUPS
HYDROGEN BONDS
AMMONIA
SECOND MOLECULE
NEGATIVE CHARGE
WHOLE MOLECULE
CHEMICAL BONDS
CHEMICAL BOND
STRUCTURAL FORMULA
MOLECULAR FORMULA
ENANTIOMERS
CHIRAL MOLECULE
CARBOXYL GROUPS
MOLECULE CONTAINING
LEAVING GROUP
ION
COVALENT BONDS
COVALENT BOND
AMINE
AMINE GROUP
ATP MOLECULE
ATP
PYRUVATE
POLAR MOLECULE
METHYL GROUP
TARGET MOLECULE
OXYGEN MOLECULES
OXYGEN MOLECULE
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC
LARGE MOLECULE
POLYMER
SMALL MOLECULE
PEPTIDE BOND
ORGANIC MOLECULE
CARBON ATOM
CARBON ATOMS
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
HYDROGEN ATOM
HYDROGEN ATOMS
OXYGEN ATOMS
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Molecule"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. A molecule is a single formula of a compound joined by covalent bonds. (Web site)
  2. A molecule is a collection of chemically bound atoms with characteristic composition and structure. (Web site)
  3. A molecule is a substance with other properties than its components. (Web site)
  4. A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that can exist by itself and retain all of its chemical properties. (Web site)
  5. A molecule is a three-dimensional map of relationships.

Chemical Formula

  1. A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule. (Web site)

Deprotonation

  1. Deprotonation is a chemistry term that refers to the removal of a proton (hydrogen ion H +) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base.
  2. In this reaction, active site residue Asp295 acts as a general base for deprotonation of a water molecule (Fig.

Nucleophile

  1. Nucleophilic substitution happens when the reagent is a nucleophile, which means, an atom or molecule with free electrons. (Web site)
  2. Electrophile: An electron deficient atom, ion or molecule that has an affinity for an electron pair, and will bond to a base or nucleophile.
  3. A nucleophile is a species (an ion or a molecule) which is strongly attracted to a region of positive charge in something else. (Web site)

Atp Molecules

  1. However, glycolysis is an inefficient process, yielding only two ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose metabolized. (Web site)
  2. The net number of coenzymes formed from one molecule of glucose are 10 NADH (+H +) and 2FADH 2. There is also a gain of 4 ATP molecules.
  3. There are three reasons that we cannot state an exact number of ATP molecules generated by one molecule of glucose.

Nadh

  1. For every pair of electrons transported to the electron transport chain by a molecule of NADH, between 2 and 3 ATP are generated.
  2. This process creates 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH 2, which go on to participate in the electron transport chain. (Web site)
  3. Concomitantly, one molecule of FADH 2, NADH and acetyl CoA are formed. (Web site)

Hydroxyl Groups

  1. An alcohol is generally classified by the number of hydroxyl groups in its molecule. (Web site)
  2. The present invention includes a functionalization of a low number of hydroxyl groups (one per molecule) to a high number (all groups on the molecule). (Web site)
  3. The term "polyhydric alcohol" used herein refers to, unless otherwise indicated, a molecule having two or more hydroxyl groups. (Web site)

Hydrogen Bonds

  1. A greater number of hydroxyl groups (–OH) also increases water solubility because hydrogen bonds can form between the alcohol molecule and water.
  2. The exact number of hydrogen bonds formed by a molecule of liquid water fluctuates with time and depends on the temperature. (Web site)
  3. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. (Web site)

Ammonia

  1. Ammonium ions, NH4+, are formed by the transfer of a hydrogen ion from the hydrogen chloride to the lone pair of electrons on the ammonia molecule.
  2. The lone pair on the nitrogen of an ammonia molecule can be used to overcome that deficiency, and a compound is formed involving a co-ordinate bond. (Web site)
  3. There is no longer a hydrogen atom on the nitrogen that an ammonia molecule could remove, and so the reaction finally comes to an end. (Web site)

Second Molecule

  1. One molecule acts as Lewis acid while the second molecule stabilize addition by completing the cyclic transition sate. (Web site)
  2. The origin of the maps corresponds to the center of mass of one molecule, and the coordinates are those of the center of mass of the second molecule.
  3. The enolate adds to the carbonyl carbon of the second molecule to give an alkoxide which quickly picks up a proton to become the alcohol.

Negative Charge

  1. Water molecules are polar, meaning that the positive electric charge is at one end of the molecule, while the negative charge is at the other end. (Web site)
  2. When the molecule loses a hydrogen atom, the remaining OH molecule takes on a negative charge.
  3. A molecule in which the center of positive charge and the center of negative charge coincide. (Web site)

Whole Molecule

  1. The primary structure of a nucleic acid molecule refers to the exact sequence of nucleotides that comprise the whole molecule. (Web site)
  2. Since the phosphate groups on the skeleton of DNA are negatively charged, the whole molecule takes on the negative charge. (Web site)
  3. However, bond lengths are not independent of neighbouring bonds and in general are a function of the distribution of electrons throughout the whole molecule. (Web site)

Chemical Bonds

  1. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together.
  2. The energy from the sun is stored in the chemical bonds of the sugar molecule. (Web site)

Chemical Bond

  1. Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond.
  2. The carbon of the carbonyl has a lone electron available, with which it forms a chemical bond to the remainder R of the molecule.
  3. In a bimolecular substitution, a nucleophile, which is a reagent that forms a chemical bond, replaces another atom attached to a molecule.

Structural Formula

  1. The structural formula and the bond angles are not usually sufficient to completely describe the geometry of a molecule. (Web site)
  2. The most elaborate type of structural formula would mention each and every atom in the molecule, including hydrogen. (Web site)
  3. Conformation The structural formula and the bond angle s are not usually sufficient to completely describe the geometry of a molecule.

Molecular Formula

  1. Like the molecular formula, the structural formula of a substance gives the exact number of atoms of each element per molecule.
  2. Isomerization = A chemical change that involves a rearrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule, without changing the molecular formula.
  3. Because CH 4 is also the molecular formula this specifies that in a molecule of methane, four hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single carbon atom. (Web site)

Enantiomers

  1. Two mirror images of a molecule that cannot be superimposed onto each other are referred to as enantiomers or optical isomers. (Web site)
  2. When they react with another molecule THAT IS CHIRAL the reaction rates are NOT the same for the two enantiomers.
  3. The stereochemistry unit begins by having the computer construct a simple molecule and its mirror image to demonstrate the concept of enantiomers. (Web site)

Chiral Molecule

  1. Lactic acid is chiral A chiral molecule is a type of molecule that lacks an internal plane of symmetry and has a non-superimposable mirror image.
  2. Two mirror images of a chiral molecule are called enantiomers or optical isomers.
  3. Absolute configuration is when the relative 3 dimensional arrangement in space of atoms in a chiral molecule have been correlated with an absolute standard. (Web site)

Carboxyl Groups

  1. Although all amino acids have amino and carboxyl groups, they differ in the rest of the molecule.
  2. Examples are decarboxylases, which remove carboxyl groups as carbon dioxide, and dehydrases, which remove a molecule of water. (Web site)
  3. Oxalic acid is a dicarboxylic acid represented by the formula H 2 C 2 O 4. Its molecule consists of two carboxyl groups bonded together.

Molecule Containing

  1. An interaction modifier changes the way that a molecule interacts with itself or other molecules, relative to molecule containing no interaction modifier. (Web site)
  2. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the saturated amine oxide is attached to a molecule containing a hindered amine. (Web site)
  3. Diastereotopic groups are often, but not always, identical groups attached to the same atom in a molecule containing at least one chiral center. (Web site)

Leaving Group

  1. Therefore, in some embodiments, a leaving group can be an electronegative atom or molecule. (Web site)
  2. If the H and the leaving group cannot be brought into this position due to the structure of the molecule, the E2 mechanism will not take place.
  3. Use the electrons on the O in order to push out the N leaving group, a neutral molecule of ammonia. (Web site)

Ion

  1. Photoionisation is a physical process in which a photon is incident on an atom, ion or molecule, resulting in the ejection of one or more electrons.
  2. Nucleophile: An atom, ion or molecule that has an electron pair that may be donated in bonding to an electrophile (or Lewis acid).
  3. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.

Covalent Bonds

  1. A molecule is composed of one or more chemical bonds (covalent bonds) between molecular orbitals of different atoms. (Web site)
  2. Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H 2 O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. (Web site)
  3. A molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms joined to an oxygen atom by covalent bonds.

Covalent Bond

  1. In a covalent bond, the atoms to form a molecule with shared electrons.
  2. Nucleophile: An atom, ion or molecule that has an electron pair that may be donated in forming a covalent bond to an electrophile (or Lewis acid).
  3. The non-hydrogen atoms of functional groups are always associated with each other and with the rest of the molecule by covalent bond s.

Amine

  1. For an amino acid with only one amine and one carboxyl group, the pI can be calculated from the mean of the pKa 's of this molecule. (Web site)
  2. In chemistry, an amino acid is a molecule containing both amine and carboxyl functional groups. (Web site)
  3. The extractant is a mixture of an amine which contains at least 20 carbon atoms per molecule and a water-immiscible organic solvent. (Web site)

Amine Group

  1. After the amide linkage is formed, the amine group is deprotected so that it can react with the next molecule to be incorporated into the oligomer.
  2. An amine group reacts with a carboxyl group to produce an amide group -CONH-. A molecule of water is eliminated.
  3. Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule. (Web site)

Atp Molecule

  1. Using an ATP molecule, ammonia is added to the compound to become formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide. (Web site)
  2. Hydrogen acceptor on inosinate oxidation is NAD+. Finally, carbon 2 gains the amino group by spending an ATP molecule (which becomes AMP+2Pi). (Web site)
  3. It takes 4 protons to synthesise 1 ATP molecule. (Web site)

Atp

  1. How cells store energy: ATP Cells store chemical energy in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). An ATP molecule has three phosphate groups.
  2. ADP and phosphate is recycled to form another ATP molecule through an endergonic reaction, which requires energy provided by catabolic pathways.
  3. The ATP molecule contains pyrophosphate linkages (bonds formed when two phosphate units are combined together) that release energy when needed. (Web site)

Pyruvate

  1. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, yielding one molecule of pyruvate and one molecule of ATP. (Web site)
  2. In the process one molecule of NADH is formed per pyruvate oxidized, and 3 moles of ATP are formed for each mole of pyruvate. (Web site)
  3. All in all, the citric acid cycle is capable of generating from 24 to 28 ATP molecules from one molecule of glucose converted to pyruvate. (Web site)

Polar Molecule

  1. Since oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, water is a polar molecule. (Web site)
  2. Polar molecule - In chemistry, a polar molecule is a molecule in which the centers of positive and negative charge distribution do not converge.
  3. A ligand can be either a polar molecule such as water, or a negatively charged ion (anion) such as carbonate.

Methyl Group

  1. In chemistry, the addition of a methyl group to a molecule. (Web site)
  2. For instance, any molecule containing the hydroxyl group (-OH) is readily soluble in water, while those containing the methyl group (-CH3) are insoluble.
  3. Transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to a target molecule converts AdoMet to S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) (see here).

Target Molecule

  1. In the final step, the TES group was removed from the molecule by a reaction with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) to yield the target molecule.
  2. With this approach a chemist will start with the structure of their target molecule and progressively cut bonds to create simpler molecules. (Web site)
  3. This is generally accomplished using a reactive derivative of the fluorophore that selectively binds to a functional group contained in the target molecule. (Web site)

Oxygen Molecules

  1. Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules.
  2. Ozone is removed when an oxygen atom and an ozone molecule "recombine" to form two oxygen molecules, i.e. (Web site)
  3. If the hemoglobin molecule binds the oxygen molecules too loosely, then it will not be capable of picking them up at the lungs. (Web site)

Oxygen Molecule

  1. Each heme group contains one iron atom, that can bind one oxygen molecule through ion -induced dipole forces. (Web site)
  2. Oxygen molecule, O 2, exhibits strong paramagnetism, due to unpaired spins of its outermost two electrons. (Web site)
  3. Since a ground state of an oxygen molecule is a triplet state, the oxygen in singlet state (singlet oxygen) is not generated by a direct photoexcitation. (Web site)

Deoxyribonucleic

  1. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The molecule that encodes genetic information. (Web site)
  2. The deoxyribonucleic acid molecule can also be looked upon as two interwoven spiral staircases, forming one staircase. (Web site)

Large Molecule

  1. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): A large molecule that carries the genetic information that cells need to replicate and to produce proteins.
  2. As DNA is a large molecule, but a molecule nevertheless, these studies involve aspects of drug delivery with DNA as the drug [ 14].
  3. You could say that it is one large molecule (since a molecule is nothing more than two or more atoms connected in some way). (Web site)

Polymer

  1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule in the form of a polymer of DNA may be comprised of one or more segments of cDNA, genomic DNA or synthetic DNA. (Web site)
  2. A large molecule composed of smaller subunits, for example starch is a polymer of glucose, proteins are polymers of amino acids. (Web site)
  3. The polymer (a) has on average at least two pendant or terminal groups of structure (I) or (II) per molecule. (Web site)

Small Molecule

  1. In biochemistry, phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO 4) group to a protein or a small molecule.
  2. An Effective Compound may be a protein or fragment thereof, a small molecule, or even a nucleic acid molecule. (Web site)
  3. For example, using a long chain alkyl group as a substituent does not remove a molecule from the "small molecule" class.

Peptide Bond

  1. Amino acids' residue is what's left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost in the formation of a peptide bond. (Web site)
  2. The oxygen or nitrogen atoms of the peptide bond are capable of hydrogen- bonding with hydrogen atoms elsewhere on the molecule. (Web site)
  3. In the formation of a peptide bond from two amino acids, a molecule of water is eliminated. (Web site)

Organic Molecule

  1. A leaving group is an atom or molecule that detaches from an organic molecule, which, after detachment, is called the residual or main part.
  2. Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule. (Web site)
  3. Atom of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen bonded together and covalently bonded to an organic molecule.

Carbon Atom

  1. When the atom is a carbon atom in an organic compound, the diol section of the molecule is unstable and has a tendency to dehydrate forming a carbonyl group.
  2. The chemical formula is OCS or COS and the molecule consists of a carbonyl group with the carbon atom also double bonded to a sulfur atom. (Web site)
  3. This methyl group can be activated, and is used in many reactions where a new carbon atom is being added to another molecule.

Carbon Atoms

  1. In this formula, n, is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.
  2. The alkylation agent is an olefin having 3 or 4 carbon atoms per molecule, sometimes referred to herein as a C.sub.3-C.sub.4 olefin. (Web site)
  3. If there is a double bond between two carbon atoms, then the molecule is said to be an alkene.

Functional Groups

  1. Formation of the chain is possible thanks to the presence of both functional groups in the amino acid molecule.
  2. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. (Web site)
  3. In chemistry, cis-trans isomerism or geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule.

Functional Group

  1. A ketal is a functional group or molecule containing a carbon bonded to two -OR groups, where O is oxygen and R represents any alkyl group.
  2. Normally a functional group is a collection of atoms that operates as one reactive unit and is also the part of the molecule involved in a chemical reaction. (Web site)
  3. Hydroxyl group: The -OH group attached to a carbon atom in a molecule and the site of most chemical reactions; also called the functional group.

Hydrogen Atom

  1. Each uniquely positioned hydrogen atom or group of H atoms in the molecule will give a separate signal. (Web site)
  2. The weak O-H bond causes the acid molecule to be less stable, and causing the hydrogen atom to be labile, thus it dissociates easily to give the H + ion. (Web site)
  3. Any molecule which has a hydrogen atom attached directly to an oxygen or a nitrogen is capable of hydrogen bonding. (Web site)

Hydrogen Atoms

  1. As the number of bonds between any two carbon atoms increases, the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule decreases (as can be seen in the figures above). (Web site)
  2. Now, as there are two hydrogen atoms in the molecule of water, we need to use eight times the mass of oxygen compared to hydrogen. (Web site)
  3. For example 1 nitrogen and 3 hydrogen atoms can join to form a molecule of ammonia.

Oxygen Atoms

  1. An oxygen gas molecule consists of two oxygen atoms bound together, and a nitrogen gas molecule consists of two nitrogen atoms bound together. (Web site)
  2. With malonic compounds the reaction product can lose a molecule of Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms.
  3. A molecule of glucose, for example, consists of 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms. (Web site)

Categories

  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Atoms
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Chemistry > Molecules
  3. Nature > Matter > Atoms > Oxygen
  4. Nature > Chemistry > Chemical Elements > Hydrogen
  5. Economics > Money > Finance > Bonds

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  Short phrases about "Molecule"
  Originally created: August 01, 2010.
  Links checked: June 26, 2013.
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