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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Closure > Neural Tube   Michael Charnine

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  1. The neural tube is a narrow channel that folds and closes between the 3rd and 4th weeks of pregnancy to form the brain and spinal cord of the embryo.
  2. The neural tube is the precursor to the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord.
  3. The neural tube is the embryonal structure that gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. (Web site)
  4. The neural tube is the embryonic structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord. (Web site)
  5. The neural tube is what eventually becomes the Central Nervous System, consisting of the brain and spinal cord. (Web site)

Vertebrate Embryo

  1. The neural crest is a transient population of cells that migrate away from the dorsal neural tube in the vertebrate embryo.
  2. Actomyosin stiffens the vertebrate embryo during crucial stages of elongation and neural tube closure.


  1. During neurulation, the different regions of the CNS can be identified in part by the appearance of flexures in the walls of the neural tube. (Web site)


  1. It has been implicated as the key inductive signal in patterning of the ventral neural tube, the anterior-posterior limb axis, and the ventral somites. (Web site)


  1. Neurulation in Xenopus involves neural fold elevation and invagination of the neural plate to form the neural tube. (Web site)
  2. Neural tube closure fails in both mouse and Xenopus when dishevelled and other components of the planar-cell-polarity pathway are misregulated. (Web site)

Dorsal Root Ganglia

  1. Neural Crest Cells migrate outward from the neural tube to form the Dorsal Root Ganglia and Chain Ganglia. (Web site)
  2. Intense lac Z staining was observed in the roof and floor plates of the neural tube, the hindbrain, midbrain, and diencephalons, and the dorsal root ganglia.

Spinal Ganglia

  1. In contrast, if the notochord is left in situ and the neural tube removed, the spinal ganglia fail to differentiate and only sympathetic ganglia can develop.


  1. From the mesoderm surrounding the neural tube and notochord, the skull, vertebral column, and the membranes of the brain and medulla spinalis are developed.
  2. Encephaloceles are a neural tube defect that characterize by sac-like protrusion of the brain through the opening in the skull.
  3. The neural tube then is covered dorsally by mesenchyme that forms the vertebrae and skull.


  1. Figure 2: The cells of the neural tube proliferate to form neurones and glial cells (Go to Fig.2, Neural Tube Differentiation).
  2. By migrating through the embryo, neural crest cells carry patterning information acquired at the dorsal neural tube into other tissue layers (Fig. (Web site)
  3. When either Hipk1MO was injected into the DMZ, phenotypes included shortened embryos with defects in blastopore closure and in neural tube closure (Fig. (Web site)


  1. Neuroblasts of motor neurons arise in the ventral half of the gray substance of the neural tube.

Brain Ventricles

  1. In the zebrafish, the MHBC is formed soon after neural tube closure, concomitant with inflation of the brain ventricles. (Web site)
  2. During normal brain development in vertebrate embryos, the center of the neural tube fills with fluid to form a system of cavities, called brain ventricles.
  3. This suggests that a process in addition to eCSF production is required to expand the neural tube and form the brain ventricles.


  1. Shh can, therefore, initiate the differentiation of two cell types that are generated in the ventral region of the neural tube.
  2. Concomitantly with the closure of the neural tube begins the differentiation of the germinating cells into nerve-cells. (Web site)
  3. Our results suggested that maturation and differentiation of neural tissue continued regardless of the failure of neural tube closure.


  1. In keeping with this hypothesis, we observed the induction of Bmp4 in the notochord and at the ventral midline of the caudal neural tube in Noggin mutants. (Web site)
  2. RESULTS: Both VPA and TSA were able to induce hyperacetylation on embryos, specifically at the level of the caudal neural tube and of somites.
  3. Interestingly, Msx-1, unlike other roof plate markers, was ectopically activated in the most caudal neural tube of Noggin mutants (Fig. (Web site)


  1. Here, we identify a new role for Nodal signaling in regulating closure of the rostral neural tube of zebrafish.
  2. This work raises the possibility that deficiencies in the Nodal signaling pathway could underlie defects in closure of the rostral neural tube in humans.
  3. However, another possibility is that the rostral neural tube closes using an alternative pathway when the ventral neural tube is absent.


  1. The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar (dorsal, or upper) plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the brain.
  2. The rhombomeres appear as a series of slightly constricted swellings in the neural tube, caudal to the cephalic flexure.


  1. The neural tube, for a short time is open both cranially and caudally.
  2. The simplistic model of the closure occurring in one step cranially and caudally does not explain the high frequency of neural tube defects. (Web site)

Rostral End

  1. The brain develops from the rostral end of the neural tube and is divided by two flexures that develop due to unequal differentiation of neuroblasts cells.
  2. The growth of the rostral end of the neural tube to form the brain is described later.
  3. A vesicle at the rostral end of the neural tube is the foundation of the telencephalon in all vertebrates.


  1. The zebrafish neural tube expands into the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain ventricles rapidly, over a four-hour window during mid-somitogenesis. (Web site)
  2. The diagram to the left illustrates different stages in the formation of the zebrafish neural tube.
  3. The cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad) is required for closure of the neural tube in zebrafish [ 28, 29].


  1. Neural Tube includes brain, spinal cord, retina, posterior pituitary and adrenal medulla. (Web site)
  2. The retina is formed during development of the embryo from optic vesicles outpouching from two sides of the developing neural tube.

Optic Vesicle

  1. Thus, the nasal-temporal axis of the retina is established by Fgf-dependent patterning of the optic vesicle along the dorsal-ventral axis of the neural tube. (Web site)
  2. The first immunoreactive cells appeared at E8.5, prior to neural tube closure, in the neural plate immediately caudal to the optic vesicle.
  3. Dotted outlines: optic vesicle and cup boundary (E, G, and I) or neural tube boundary (F, H, and J). (Web site)


  1. Expression was maintained in the brain, eye, neural tube and pancreas throughout development and persisted in some cells of the adult animal. (Web site)
  2. The expression in the nervous system persists exclusively in some cells of the dorsal neural tube just near the first pigment spot (Fig. (Web site)
  3. Removal of the ventral aspect of the neural tube (including the notochord) had opposite effects, expression of lmx1 increased, and its domain expanded. (Web site)

Ectodermal Cells

  1. Ectodermal cells will undergo successive differentiation stages taking on of the three major pathways of External Ectoderm, neural crest and neural tube. (Web site)
  2. At this stage, groupings of ectodermal cells, called neural crests, develop as a column on each side of the neural tube. (Web site)


  1. Strong staining is detected in the prosencephalon, diencephalon, optic vesicle, neural tube and pancreas (arrowhead). (Web site)
  2. In gestation, the human neural tube gives rise to three vesicles: the rhombencephalon, the mesencephalon and the prosencephalon. (Web site)
  3. It emerges from the prosencephalon, the first of three vesicles that form from the embryonic neural tube.

Anterior End

  1. The prosencephalon, or forebrain represents the anterior end or the neural tube.
  2. The primule of the brain is formed from the anterior end of the neural tube. (Web site)
  3. Failure of the anterior end of the neural tube is even more devastating.

Ventricular Zone

  1. In the central nervous system, glia develop from the ventricular zone of the neural tube.
  2. The post-mitotic cells generated from neuroepithelial stem cells (neuroblasts) in ventricular zone of neural tube. (Web site)

Neuroepithelial Cells

  1. The wall of the neural tube consists of neuroepithelial cells, which differentiate into neuroblasts, forming the mantle layer (the gray matter). (Web site)
  2. Contractile filaments concentrated in the neuroepithelial cells of the neural folds begin to contract, bringing the edges together to form the neural tube.
  3. The fate of neuroepithelial cells in the ventral neural tube appears to depend on their position with reference to the ventral midline.


  1. Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly). (Web site)
  2. By studying families with anencephaly and other NTDs, they hope to identify the genes that contribute to the development of the neural tube. (Web site)
  3. In severe cases, neural tube defects such as malformation or absence of portions of the brainstem and spinal cord may occur (anencephaly).

Birth Defect

  1. Neural Tube Defect - A birth defect caused by the improper development of the brain or spinal cord. (Web site)
  2. Neural Tube Defect - A birth defect that affects the spinal column or brain of a developing fetus or baby.
  3. NTDs (neural tube defects) are birth defect s that occur very early in pregnancy.


  1. As described, the primary defect is a failure of the neural folds to fuse in the midline and form the neural tube, which is neuroectoderm.
  2. Neuroectoderm - the portion of the ectoderm that gives rise to the neural tube and neural crest.

Dorsal Part

  1. No detectable expression in the dorsal part of the neural tube was observed rostral to the hindbrain. (Web site)
  2. The dorsal part of the neural tube contains the alar plate, which is primarily associated with sensation. (Web site)

Mouse Embryos

  1. Defects in mesoderm, neural tube and vascular development in mouse embryos lacking fibronectin. (Web site)
  2. Greene N.D.E., Dunlevy L.E., Copp A.J. Homocysteine is embryotoxic but does not cause neural tube defects in mouse embryos. (Web site)
  3. Excess methionine suppresses the methylation cycle and inhibits neural tube closure in mouse embryos.

Sonic Hedgehog

  1. As in the limb bud, ectopic expression of Sonic hedgehog leads to ectopic induction of PTC in the neural tube and paraxial mesoderm.
  2. Sonic hedgehog induces the differentiation of ventral forebrain neurons: a common signal for ventral patterning within the neural tube.
  3. The ventral neural tube is patterned by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) from the notochord, which acts as the inducing tissue.

Fetal Development

  1. During fetal development, the neural tube does not close properlu and the brain, nerves, spinal cord and muscles can not properly develop.
  2. These defects are caused by failure of the neural tube to close completely during fetal development. (Web site)
  3. Spina bifida occurs because the neural tube, around the area of the spine, fails to close during fetal development. (Web site)


  1. Retroviral labeling of the hindbrain neural tube later resulted in labeled cells in the vestibulocochlear ganglion, membranous labyrinth and otic capsule. (Web site)
  2. In the most severely affected MZ oep mutants, the hindbrain neural tube appeared to have split along the midline.
  3. In contrast, the hindbrain neural tube of the MZ oep mutants was severely disrupted along the whole dorsal-ventral axis.

Roof Plate

  1. A secondary signaling center is then established in the roof plate, the dorsal most structure of the neural tube [ 1]. (Web site)

Overlying Ectoderm

  1. When neurulation is complete, the overlying ectoderm separates from the neural tube.
  2. The neural crest delaminates from the developing neural tube and overlying ectoderm early in development. (Web site)


  1. Noggin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is required for embryonic neural tube, somites and skeleton patterning. (Web site)
  2. Noggin is expressed in the dorsal aspects of the neural plate, the presumptive roof plate, coincident with neural tube closure. (Web site)


  1. Noggin is not essential for neural induction but is required for normal growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. (Web site)


  1. Before histogenesis and organogenesis the primitive embryonic structures have been already formed: germ layers, neural tube, notochord, coeloms, somites. (Web site)
  2. The paraxial mesoderm, at the sides of the neural tube, gives rise to the somites and head mesoderm. (Web site)
  3. Furthermore, the neural tube located caudally to the last pair of somites (i.e. (Web site)

Basal Plate

  1. The anterior (front) part of the neural tube is called the basal plate; the posterior (rear) part is called the alar plate.
  2. The ventral part of the neural tube contains the basal plate, which is primarily associated with motor (ie, muscle) control.
  3. Further, two accumulations of cells along the neural tube become distinguishable: the alar plate and the basal plate. (Web site)

Floor Plate

  1. When the neural tube of avian embryos is separated from the notochord and floor plate, motoneurons in the spinal cord fail to develop. (Web site)
  2. In the nervous system, it is secreted by the notochord, ventralizes the neural tube, inducing the floor plate and motor neurons. (Web site)
  3. The mammalian organizer, the node, gives rise to axial midline structures: the notochord, dorsal foregut, and part of the floor plate of the neural tube.

Dorsal Midline

  1. We specifically avoided including tissue from the basal plate and the dorsal midline of the neural tube. (Web site)
  2. In both chick and mouse, Wnt1 is expressed along most of the dorsal midline of the neural tube. (Web site)
  3. We also observed enhanced cell death at the dorsal midline of the neural tube in Noggin mutants.

Neural Groove

  1. Before the neural groove is closed to form the neural tube a ridge of ectodermal cells, the ganglion ridge or neural crest (Fig. (Web site)
  2. Neural groove: In development, the stage just before the neural plate closes to form the neural tube. (Web site)
  3. By the twentieth day, the neural folds meet and fuse at the dorsal midline, and the neural groove becomes a neural tube. (Web site)

Fourth Week

  1. Late in the fourth week, the superior part of the neural tube flexes at the level of the future midbrain—the mesencephalon. (Web site)
  2. In spina bifida the open ends of the neural tube (the neuropores) fail to close as they should during the fourth week of gestation.

Surface Ectoderm

  1. The neural crest is a population of cells that differentiates at the boundary between the neural tube and the surface ectoderm. (Web site)
  2. Once formed, the neural tube separates from the surface ectoderm and eventually develops into the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). (Web site)
  3. The region of the embryo that lies between the newly formed neural tube and the surface ectoderm is composed of the neural crest cells.

Central Canal

  1. The 2 neural folds join and create the neural tube with a central canal. (Web site)

Ventricular System

  1. The ventricular system reflects the development of the lumen of the neural tube, and it is your best guide to understanding the structure of the brain.
  2. From the cavity inside the neural tube develops the ventricular system, and, from the epithelial cells of its walls, the neurons and glial cells.
  3. The structures of the ventricular system are embryologically derived from the centre of the neural tube (the neural canal).


  1. Closure
  2. Defects
  3. Nature > Life > Animals > Embryo
  4. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Society > Humans > Spinal Cord
  5. Humans > Medicine > Anatomy > Brain

Related Keywords

    * Alar Plate * Anterior * Anterior Neural Tube * Birth Defects * Brain * Cells * Close * Closed * Closure * Defect * Defects * Development * Dorsal * Ectoderm * Embryo * Embryonic Development * Embryos * Fertilization * Fetus * Folate * Fold * Folds * Folic * Form * Formation * Forming * Forms * Mesoderm * Midline * Mutants * Neural Crest Cells * Neural Tube Closure * Neural Tube Defect * Neural Tube Defects * Neural Tube Formation * Neurulation * Notochord * Pregnancy * Primary Neurulation * Result * Resulting * Results * Risk * Secondary Neurulation * Shh * Spinal Cord * Spina Bifida * Tube * Vertebrate * Vertebrates
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