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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Humans > Medicine > Anatomy > Brain > Neurons   Michael Charnine

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  1. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. (Web site)
  2. Neurons are the cells that generate action potentials and convey information to other cells; these constitute the essential class of brain cells.
  3. Neurons are nerve cells that process and transmit information through the nervous system. (Web site)
  4. Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information.
  5. Neurons are the core components of the brain, and spinal cord in vertebrates and ventral nerve cord in invertebrates, and peripheral nerves. (Web site)

Brain Stem

  1. The Autonomic Nervous System includes all the nerve cells, or neurons, located outside the spinal cord and the brain stem.

Myelin Sheaths

  1. The neurons of the brain and spinal cord do not have such a cell layer covering their myelin sheaths.
  2. Nerve cell damage takes place within the "white matter" of the brain, where the neurons have myelin sheaths, giving this part of the brain its color. (Web site)
  3. Myelin sheaths wrap themselves around axons, the threadlike extensions of neurons that make up nerve fibers.

Schwann Cells

  1. Schwann cells were plated onto the neurons and maintained in neurobasal medium with supplements until the Schwann cells populate the axons (about 7-10 days). (Web site)
  2. For example, astroglia, oligodendrocytes, microglia cells, Schwann cells, fibroblast, neuroblast, neural stem cells and mature neurons. (Web site)
  3. Transplantation of Schwann cells prevented the detrimental effects of monocular deprivation on ocular dominance and binocularity of cortical neurons.

Dorsal Root

  1. G. Dorsal Root (Sensory) 8 - [ 18] Neurons with specific functions can be localized in the gray matter.
  2. Each spinal nerve has a dorsal root where sensory neurons enter and a ventral root where motor neurons leave. (Web site)

Dorsal Root Ganglion

  1. In anatomy and neurology, the dorsal root ganglion is a nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of neurons in afferent spinal nerves.
  2. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are in the dorsal root ganglion, but the motor neuron cell bodies are in the gray matter. (Web site)
  3. This information is sent from receptors of the skin, bones, and joints through sensory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal root ganglion.

Nerve Impulse

  1. They communicate to other neurons by firing a nerve impulse along an axon. (Web site)
  2. The nerve impulse is the same in all neurons; the specific effect that results is dependent on the organ being stimulated.
  3. Neurons have the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse.

Nerve Impulses

  1. The white matter of the brain is composed mainly of axons---the filament-like myelinated fibers that carry nerve impulses between neurons.
  2. Choline and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) are used to produce acetylcholine, the major neurotransmitter that transmits nerve impulses between neurons. (Web site)
  3. Motor neurons transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to a specific area of the body. (Web site)


  1. The optic nerve is peculiar in that its fibers and ganglion cells are probably third in the series of neurons from the receptors to the brain. (Web site)
  2. Both astrocytes and NG2-glia display a stellate morphology and express ion channels and receptors to neurotransmitters used by neurons. (Web site)
  3. The neurons and support cells within the retina are fairly translucent, so light is able to pass through them and reach the receptors.


  1. Glutamate excites neurons, stimulating them to fire, while GABA inhibits the firing.
  2. Neurons very often make both a conventional neurotransmitter (such as glutamate, GABA or dopamine) and one or more neuropeptides. (Web site)
  3. Ultimately, if glutamate is not cleared out of the synapse, neurons become damaged and die by a process called excitotoxicity. (Web site)

Pns Neurons

  1. Expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in hNPs derived PNS neurons. (Web site)
  2. Possible candidates are type I and II Ig-Nrg1 that are expressed by the PNS neurons and later released from the axonal membrane by proteolytic cleavage. (Web site)


  1. It's the neural crest cell which gives rise to PNS neurons and glia. (Web site)
  2. To see whether GDNF promotes the survival of PNS neurons, we studied embryonic chicken autonomic and sensory neurons in culture.
  3. Proper culturing conditions apparently promote differentiation of these cells to PNS neurons in vitro. (Web site)


  1. This result confirms the inductive effect of valproate on the production of GABAergic neurons from rat stem cell. (Web site)
  2. Since valproate increases dramatically the differentiation into GABAergic neurons these could be used to replace GABAergic neurons in Huntington's disease. (Web site)
  3. Thus, our data suggest that SAT1 expression is pronounced in GABAergic neurons and that it is distributed in the cell bodies and dendritic processes. (Web site)


  1. The neurons in the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral or cerebellar cortex are particularly vulnerable to a short period of ischemia. (Web site)
  2. The groups of neurons most prominently and consistently affected in Huntington disease -- the pallidum and striatum -- are located in the basal ganglia.
  3. The majority of these neurons send their axons along the nigrostriatal pathway to the striatum where they release the neurotransmitter dopamine. (Web site)


  1. After synapsing in the thalamus the neurons convey visual impulses to the occipital lobe of the brain. (Web site)
  2. Thus, to compare the results from different injections, we used the relative percentages of labeled neurons in specific regions of the thalamus (Fig.
  3. In addition the pars reticulata sends neurons to the pars parafascicularis of the central region of the thalamus and to the pedunculopontine complex).

Gabaergic Neurons

  1. Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons, and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the adult vertebrate.
  2. The GABAergic neurons in the pars reticulata convey the final processed signals of the basal ganglia to the thalamus and superior colliculus. (Web site)
  3. Glutamine is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of both L-glutamate and (GABA) neurotransmitters in glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons, respectively. (Web site)

Dopamine Neurons

  1. The function of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is complex. (Web site)
  2. Third, within each type of mechanism the effect on the dopamine system is similar (e.g., Class I drugs all activate dopamine neurons via disinhibition). (Web site)
  3. Dopamine neurons are involved in the regulation of motivation and reward, and are directly or indirectly affected by all drugs of abuse. (Web site)


  1. One part (the pars compacta) uses dopamine neurons to send signals up to the striatum.
  2. They make connections with the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta whose long dendrites plunge deeply in the pars reticulata. (Web site)
  3. The dopamine enables communication with receptors on neurons in a region of the brain called the striatum.

Betz Cells

  1. These neurons are called Betz cells, and were once thought to be the sole source of the corticospinal tract. (Web site)
  2. M1 contains large neurons known as Betz cells which send long axons down the spinal cord to synapse onto alpha motor neurons which connect to the muscles.
  3. To compare the cellular volumes of Betz cells and pyramidal neurons, we calculated the ratio of the volumes of Betz cells to pyramidal cells (Table 1).

Grey Matter

  1. The cortex contains neurons (grey matter), which are interconnected to other brain areas by axons (white matter).
  2. Grey matter is found in clusters of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and in cortical layers that line their surfaces. (Web site)
  3. The grey matter is made up of cell bodies of neurons while the white matter consists of nerve fibers.

Purkinje Cells

  1. In the cerebellum, most Purkinje cells and neurons in cerebellar nuclei showed a different kind of lesion.
  2. Neurons of the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) form the climbing fibers that excite Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex.
  3. Autopsy findings include reduced Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and decreased numbers of neurons in the amygdala.

Action Potentials

  1. The only notable differences between neurons and glial cells are neurons' possession of axons and dendrites, and capacity to generate action potentials.
  2. Within neuronal nerve fibers by way of action potentials Between neurons by way of neurotransmitter diffusion across synapses. (Web site)
  3. The neurons carry information in the form of electrical pulses known as action potentials. (Web site)

Six Layers

  1. The six layers marked at the right refer to six layers of neurons that have different anatomical and functional properties.
  2. Identify the cerebral cortex that contains six layers of neurons. (Web site)
  3. The cortex consists of three to six layers of large and small neurons. (Web site)


  1. Most regions of the human cerebral cortex have six layers of neurons (neocortex).
  2. In humans, the neocortex consists of millions of these columns, and each column has up to 100,000 neurons per square millimeter.
  3. The neocortex of the adult brain consists of neurons and glia that are generated by precursor cells of the embryonic ventricular zone.

Granule Cells

  1. The cerebellar cortex consists of three layers with five types of neurons: stellate, basket, Purkinje, Golgi and granule cells. (Web site)
  2. All neurons with cell bodies in the cerebellar cortex are inhibitory except for the granule cells.
  3. In addition to these four groups of neurons, we also determined the electrophysiological properties of 16 granule cells for comparison to the interneurons.

Dentate Gyrus

  1. The dentate gyrus is one of the few regions of the adult brain where neurogenesis (i.e., the birth of new neurons) takes place. (Web site)
  2. Thus, granule cells in the dentate gyrus are possibly the only known population of neurons in the brain that are constantly increasing their numbers. (Web site)
  3. Nevertheless, neurons continue to be born throughout life in the olfactory bulb, which processes scents, and in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.


  1. Neurons contain some specialized structures (for example, synapses) and chemicals (for example, neurotransmitters). (Web site)
  2. The brain tries to maintain homeostatis, and will make more receptors to compensate for the loss of neurons and their neurotransmitters.
  3. These neurons use such neurotransmitters as dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin and others. (Web site)


  1. In most regions of the brain, the predominant classes of neurons use glutamate as neurotransmitter and have excitatory effects on their targets. (Web site)
  2. Neurotransmitter: A chemical released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information via receptors. (Web site)
  3. In Huntington's disease, a genetic mutation causes over-production of a neurotransmitter called glutamate, which kills neurons in the basal ganglia.

Myelin Sheath

  1. Loss of the myelin sheath (demyelination) interferes with the ability of neurons to conduct impulses.
  2. Oligodendrocyte (o-li-go-DEN-dro-site): Cell that produces the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons in the central nervous system.
  3. The appearance of white matter is due to the myelin sheath found on the axons of some neurons. (Web site)

Peripheral Nervous System

  1. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of the neurons not included in the brain and spinal cord.
  2. Neuronopathies are the result of destruction of peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons. (Web site)
  3. Schwann cell (SHWAHN SELL): Cell that forms the myelin sheath around axons of neurons in the peripheral nervous system.

Synaptic Connections

  1. Neurons often have extensive networks of dendrites, which receive synaptic connections. (Web site)
  2. Explanatory pattern: The brain has neurons organized by synaptic connections into populations and brain areas. (Web site)
  3. Lateral Connections: Synaptic connections between neighboring neurons that modify information flow through those neurons. (Web site)

Individual Neurons

  1. Electrophysiology allows scientists to record the electrical activity of individual neurons or groups of neurons.
  2. By the 20th century, the anatomical works of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi laid the foundation for the study of individual neurons in the brain. (Web site)
  3. This new study indicates that pH can sometimes rise and fall in synapses, the points of communication between individual neurons in the brain.


  1. It is known to affect the excitability of neurons in the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for memory. (Web site)
  2. In Alzheimer's disease, unusual proteins build up in and around neurons in the neocortex and hippocampus, parts of the brain that control memory.
  3. Amygdala The amygdalas are two almond-shaped masses of neurons on either side of the thalamus at the lower end of the hippocampus. (Web site)

Pyramidal Neurons

  1. Some examples: spinal motor neurons, in the hippocampus, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, granule cells. (Web site)
  2. The activity of these neurons is, in turn, modulated by glutamatergic inputs furnished by pyramidal neurons.
  3. In the adult forebrain, dkk3 expression was detected in the lateral VZ, pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, and cortical neurons. (Web site)


  1. A neuron may receive electrical input signals from sensory cells (called sensory neurons) and from other neurons. (Web site)
  2. Sensory neurons enter the dorsal root and have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion, close to the spinal cord.
  3. This information is sent from receptors of the skin, bones, and joints through sensory neurons that synapse in the dorsal root ganglion. (Web site)


  1. Afferent, or sensory, neurons carry impulses from peripheral sense receptors to the CNS. They usually have long dendrites and relatively short axons. (Web site)
  2. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons, while the axon sends impulses to other neurons. (Web site)
  3. Impulses transmitted from the brain and spinal cord to either muscles or glands are carried by motor neurons. (Web site)

Cns Neurons

  1. For example, elevated intracellular cAMP levels enhance survival of CNS neurons.


  1. Generally speaking, brain and spinal cord injuries, strokes, and diseases that destroy CNS neurons have devastating effects. (Web site)
  2. DOPEGAL has been found to trigger apoptosis and cause the loss of CNS neurons. (Web site)
  3. In this regard, ATP is already well known to be co-released with noradrenaline in various PNS and CNS neurons [ 35, 36].

Substantia Nigra

  1. Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra has been linked to Parkinson's disease.

Dopaminergic Neurons

  1. The pathological hallmarks are the presence of Lewy bodies and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. (Web site)
  2. Contrarily to the neurons of the pars reticulata-lateralis, dopaminergic neurons are "low-spiking pacemakers" (Surmeier et al. (Web site)
  3. There it caused the damages of the cerebral cortex (see the PET) and of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. (Web site)

Supporting Cells

  1. Each part consists chiefly of nerve cells, called neurons, and supporting cells, called glia. (Web site)
  2. The neural plate will differentiate into all of the neurons and most of the supporting cells of the nervous system (neuroglial cells). (Web site)
  3. It gives rise to neurons, supporting cells and ependyma of the central nervous system.


  1. Neuroglia (from glia, Greek for "glue") provide structural support to the neurons. (Web site)
  2. The neural crest gives rise to the neurons and neuroglia of the peripheral nervous system.
  3. There are two main types of brain cells: neurons and neuroglia. (Web site)


  1. Myelin is a collection of lipid fats and proteins that sheaths the long extensions of nerve cells (neurons) called axons.
  2. Cajal challenged this view after staining areas of the brain that had less myelin and discovering that neurons were discrete cells. (Web site)
  3. The loss of myelin decreases the speed with which neurons can send information to other nerves. (Web site)


  1. As myelin, axons, oligodendrocytes, and neurons are destroyed, the brain begins to shrink.
  2. Oligodendroglioma: A glial tumor made up of cells which insulate neurons in the central nervous system (oligodendrocytes).
  3. Differentiation of single secondary spheres results in the production of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

Cell Body

  1. Signals from other neurons or sensory cells are received on the dendrites and cell body (soma) and cause localized changes in membrane polarization.
  2. In the PNS, neurons are supported by Schwann cells and satellite cells (which form around the cell body to protect and cushion it).
  3. The dendrites are the short pieces that come off of the cell body that receive the signals from sensory receptors and other neurons. (Web site)

Cell Bodies

  1. The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie within them—their cell bodies reside within the brain, central cord, or peripheral ganglia.
  2. The cell bodies of neurons that make up the spinothalamic tract are located principally within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
  3. Ganglia, Sensory [M0027111] Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons.


  1. They communicate with other neurons in the brain and throughout the body by sending various chemicals called neurotransmitters across gaps known as synapses. (Web site)
  2. Communication at the synapses between neurons relies on chemicals called neurotransmitters.
  3. Once the neurons have reached their regional positions, they extend axons and dendrites, which allow them to communicate with other neurons via synapses. (Web site)


  1. Humans > Medicine > Anatomy > Brain
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Society > Humans > Spinal Cord
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Life > Cells
  4. Medicine > Anatomy > Neuroanatomy > Nervous System
  5. Signals

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