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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Information > Structure > Neural Tube > Neurulation   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
NODAL SIGNALING
SECONDARY NEURULATION
GROUPS
ABNORMALITIES
STAGES
APOPTOSIS
DATA
PRIMARY NEURULATION
FOLDING
HUMANS
NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS
CELLS
MESODERM
NEURAL CREST
PATTERNING
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
GASTRULA
EXENCEPHALY
HUMAN EMBRYO
CHICK EMBRYO
REQUIRED
ZEBRAFISH
NEURAL FOLDS
SOMITES
CLOSURE
MAMMALIAN EMBRYO
FORMATION
CELL MOVEMENTS
MORPHOGENESIS
VERTEBRATES
PROCESS
ORGANOGENESIS
GASTRULATION
NEURAL PLATE
NEURAL TUBE CLOSURE
NEURAL TUBE
NEURULATION
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Neurulation"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Neurulation is a part of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos. (Web site)
  2. Neurulation is the formation of the neural tube from the ectoderm of the embryo. (Web site)
  3. Neurulation is the process in which a thickened strip of ectoderm, the neural plate, rises in two parallel folds and bends inward to form the neural tube.
  4. Neurulation is the process by which vertebrates form the "neural tube" which eventually differentiates into the spinal chord and related structures.
  5. Neurulation is the process that establishes the central nervous system.

Nodal Signaling

  1. It is tempting to speculate that the role of Zic2 and Zic3 in neurulation is a reflection of their role in regulation of Nodal signaling.
  2. Therefore, it is probable that Nodal signaling induces mesendoderm, and mesendoderm consequently promotes anterior neurulation.
  3. However, there are some indications that Nodal signaling has a conserved role in vertebrate neurulation.

Secondary Neurulation

  1. This process has also been termed secondary neurulation.

Groups

  1. Given the variations of primary and secondary neurulation in other groups, we re-evaluated the literature and the mechanism of teleost neurulation.

Abnormalities

  1. As the hypothesis stated, abnormalities were seen in gastrulation and neurulation.
  2. Some show clear abnormalities in neurulation, others display neural tube or neural determination defects that may include abnormal neurulation.

Stages

  1. The distinction between primary and secondary neurulation is particularly apparent in the stages that bracket formation of the neural tube.

Apoptosis

  1. Both Casp3 and Apaf1 null embryos exhibit severely reduced apoptosis, yet neurulation proceeds normally in the forebrain and spine.

Data

  1. Therefore we should be careful when extrapolating the data of normal and abnormal neurulation in laboratory animals to the human. (Web site)

Primary Neurulation

  1. There are 2 ways in which the neural tube develops: Primary neurulation and Secondary neurulation.
  2. Primary neurulation begins after the neural plate has formed. (Web site)
  3. In primary neurulation, the neural plate creases inward until the edges come in contact and fuse. (Web site)

Folding

  1. Folding The process of the flat neural plate folding into the cylindrical neural tube is termed primary neurulation. (Web site)

Humans

  1. At the embryonic level, the events of neurulation appear extremely similar between mice and humans.

Neural Tube Defects

  1. Despite recent advances in our understanding of neurulation, neural tube defects continue to be a major health care concern.

Cells

  1. During this process, called neurulation, the midline ectoderm that contains these cells thickens into a distinct columnar epithelium called the neural plate.
  2. During neurulation, ephrin-A5 is co-expressed with its cognate receptor EphA7 in cells at the edges of the dorsal neural folds. (Web site)

Mesoderm

  1. Our data suggests that mesoderm also has a critical role in neurulation in the rostral zebrafish neural tube.

Neural Crest

  1. The sequence of stages from neural plate to neural tube and neural crest is known as neurulation. (Web site)

Patterning

  1. In addition, morphoregulatory molecules expressed during neurulation underlie induction and patterning of the forming neuraxis.

Central Nervous System

  1. Neurulation accomplishes three major things in higher vertebrates: (1) It creates the neural tube, which gives rise the central nervous system.
  2. Neural tube Following primary and secondary neurulation, the neural tube is the developing vertebrate embryo's precursor to the central nervous system.

Gastrula

  1. Neurulation occurs at or near the end of gastrulation and transforms the gastrula into a neurula by establishing the central nervous system. (Web site)

Exencephaly

  1. Lack of Zic2 causes a delay in neurulation, spina bifida, and at a lower rate, exencephaly [ 80].

Human Embryo

  1. Neurulation in the human embryo revisited. (Web site)

Chick Embryo

  1. Gastrulation and neurulation in the chick embryo, focusing on the mesodermal component.

Required

  1. Together, these studies demonstrate that Nodal signaling is required for an anterior-specific mechanism of neurulation.

Zebrafish

  1. The paper is actually a platform for a big proposal to use zebrafish to search for more molecules involved in neurulation.

Neural Folds

  1. The neural crest is a major cell type arising in the lateral tips of the neural folds during the process of neurulation. (Web site)

Somites

  1. Recall that during neurulation, the vertebral precursors, somites, condense out of axial medoderm as the neural folds emerge from Hensen's node.

Closure

  1. Homozygous mutant mice show perinatal lethality resulting from exencephaly, a defect caused by failed closure of the cranial neural tube during neurulation.
  2. In humans, the most caudal NT may have a 5th closure site involving L2 to S2. Closure below S2 is by secondary neurulation.

Mammalian Embryo

  1. In the mammalian embryo, an understanding of the dynamic nature of neurulation has been hampered due to its in utero development.

Formation

  1. Steps of neurulation include the formation of the dorsal nerve cord, and the eventual formation of the central nervous system. (Web site)
  2. Secondary neurulation refers to the formation of the lower spinal cord, which gives rise to the lumbar and sacral elements.
  3. Perhaps the major point of confusion with regard to teleost neurulation is the opening of a lumen in the neural keel after formation of this solid tube.

Cell Movements

  1. The derivation of the zebrafish neural tube from an epithelium and the cell movements involved are typical of primary neurulation.

Morphogenesis

  1. Morphogenesis during gastrulation and neurulation occurs largely by cell movements and rearrangements. (Web site)

Vertebrates

  1. Neurulation follows gastrulation in all vertebrates. (Web site)
  2. Teleost neurulation has been described as different from that of other vertebrates.

Process

  1. Neural tube defects (NTD) occur because of a defect in the neurulation process.
  2. One hallmark of the neurulation process is the presence of dying cells in the neural folds during and after closure.
  3. Currently, researchers are examining the mechanisms involved in neurulation - the process of forming the neural tube. (Web site)

Organogenesis

  1. Later stages of development such as neurulation, morphogenesis, and organogenesis are clearly observable.

Gastrulation

  1. The embryonic development of the egg consists of four major steps: cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis (Burton, 1987).
  2. A criterion was established for each of the three major groups of embryonic development: gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis.
  3. After gastrulation, during neurulation and organogenesis, the anterior end begins to develop and then the posterior region begins to form.

Neural Plate

  1. This competenece is acquired gradually during gastrulation and neurulation from interactions with the endoderm, mesoderm, and neural plate. (Web site)
  2. We demonstrate that Neogenin and RGMa are required for establishing the morphology of deep layer cells in the neural plate throughout neurulation.
  3. Neurulation begins with the formation of a neural plate, a thickening of the ectoderm caused when cuboidal epithelial cells become columnar.

Neural Tube Closure

  1. Neural crest cells quickly migrate during or shortly after neurulation, an embryological event marked by neural tube closure.
  2. Studies in the chick suggest a requirement for apoptosis during neurulation, because inhibition of caspase activity was found to prevent neural tube closure. (Web site)
  3. Neural fold elevation is a key morphological process that acts during neurulation to drive neural tube closure.

Neural Tube

  1. Neurulation in vertebrates results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to both the spinal cord and the brain.
  2. Neurulation in Xenopus involves neural fold elevation and invagination of the neural plate to form the neural tube. (Web site)
  3. The first stage in vertebrates is called neurulation, where the neural plate folds forming the neural tube. (Web site)

Neurulation

  1. Neurulation - "Neurulation" is the process of folding of the neural plate and closure of the cranial and caudal neuropores to form the neural tube.
  2. After gastrulation, the process of neurulation, or formation of the neural tube and associated structures, takes place. (Web site)
  3. Through these processes (cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis), the organs are formed until the embryo is half formed.

Categories

  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Information > Structure > Neural Tube
  2. Neural Plate
  3. Nature > Life > Animals > Gastrulation
  4. Science > Biology > Developmental Biology > Organogenesis
  5. Medicine > Anatomy > Tissues > Ectoderm
  6. Books about "Neurulation" in Amazon.com

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  Short phrases about "Neurulation"
  Originally created: July 27, 2008.
  Links checked: April 29, 2013.
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