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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Neutrons > Nuclei   Michael Charnine

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  1. Nuclei are bound by an attractive strong nuclear force between nucleons, which overcomes the electrostatic repulsion between protons.
  2. Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons bound together by the strong force.
  3. Nuclei are the massive tiny core of atoms that give them their identity as specific isotopes of a given element.
  4. Nuclei are positively charged, and thus repel each other due to the electrostatic force.
  5. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue).

Cerebellar Cortex

  1. Although the inhibitory Purkinje cells are the main output of the cerebellar cortex, the output from the cerebellum as a whole comes from the deep nuclei.


  1. When a nucleus splits, there are several decay products including radiation, neutrons, and two new smaller nuclei (usually referred to as fission products).
  2. Their breakdown is known as the decay of atoms resulting in the formation of stable nuclei accompanied by radiation of energy.
  3. Radiation is from decay of nuclei while electromagnetic radiation is any form of light.


  1. Radioactivity is defined as the process by which atoms emit particles and high energy rays from their nuclei.
  2. Radioactivity is a random process and the time taken for half of the nuclei of the atoms of radioactive elements, is known as the half-life of that element.
  3. Radioactivity refers to the particles which are emitted from nuclei as a result of nuclear instability.

Anterior Nuclei

  1. The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus.
  2. The devices were placed in an area of the brain where they could stimulate the anterior nuclei of the thalamus.
  3. The cells of the anterior nuclei are smaller and are supposed to give off the sympathetic efferent axons.

Reticular Formation

  1. Finally, some fibers are sent to the intralaminar (IL) nuclei of the thalamus via the reticular formation.
  2. Additionally, the neurons that manufacture serotonin, the raphe nuclei, form a ridge or seam in the middle of the reticular formation.
  3. Information comes to the intralaminar nucleus from the basal ganglia, the reticular formation, and other thalamic nuclei.

Brain Stem

  1. Running up the brain stem from the medulla oblongata through the pons and the midbrain is a netlike formation of nuclei known as the reticular formation.
  2. Collaterals and terminals are given off to the red nucleus and probably other nuclei of the brain stem and to the anterior column of the spinal cord.
  3. There are also various groups of neurons (nuclei) within the brain stem.


  1. In physics, different forms of the same element, with nuclei that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
  2. The atomic number not only identifies the chemical properties of an element but facilitates the description of other aspects of atoms and nuclei.
  3. Certain atoms are unstable, and their nuclei sometimes break apart and change into another element through a process known as "radioactive decay".


  1. Fusion produces energy by fusing together light nuclei like hydrogen to make more massive muclei like helium.
  2. The dikaryon is a prolonged mycelial stage in which the nuclei from each mating partner remain together without fusing.
  3. Compatible nuclei may coexist in the same cell or spore for many weeks or months before fusing to allow continued progression of sexual reproduction.


  1. The nuclei join in a process called karyogamy to form a zygote.
  2. Fusion of two haploid nuclei occurs with in the fruiting bodies forming a zygote, This is called as SYNGAMY, followed immediately by meiosis.
  3. Soon after fertilization, however, the egg and sperm nuclei merge to form a zygote with the proper number of chromosomes.

Cell Nuclei

  1. Working in the 19th century, biochemists initially isolated DNA and RNA (mixed together) from cell nuclei.
  2. DAPI (blue) shows location of cell nuclei in grey matter region of the cord.
  3. The coming together and fusing of cell nuclei, as in fertilization.


  1. In basidiomycetes, two hyphae fuse to form a dikaryotic mycelium (a mycelium in which both nuclei remain distinct).
  2. NUCLEI OF HYPHAE All fungal nuclei are HAPLOID except for transient diploid zygote that forms during sexual reproduction.
  3. In the final stage, each segment has two nuclei, and the hyphae grow to produce basidia and disperse basidiospores.


  1. Hyphae contain nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi and membrane-bound vesicles within a plasma-membrane bound cytoplasm.
  2. In nonseptate (i.e., coenocytic) hyphae the nuclei are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  3. However, septa have pores, such as the doliporus in the basidiomycetes that allow cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes nuclei to pass through.

Gamma Rays

  1. Fission can occur spontaneously in some nuclei, but is usually caused by nuclear absorption of gamma rays, neutrons, or other particles.
  2. The nuclei emit gamma rays, while the positrons meet with electrons and both are "annihilated,"in the process, also leaving behind gamma rays.
  3. Fission: a nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei, and possibly some fast neutrons, beta particles, alpha particles, and gamma rays.

Free Neutrons

  1. In a fission reaction, free neutrons are produced which fly off and strike other nuclei, causing them to split and send off yet more free neutrons.
  2. Free neutrons and protons are less stable than helium nuclei, and the protons and neutrons have a strong tendency to form helium-4.
  3. In this region, there are nuclei, free electrons, and free neutrons.


  1. The nucleus of a uranium isotope (U-235), when bombarded by neutrons, split into two smaller nuclei.
  2. The flying neutrons then hit other nuclei of the uranium and cause them to split in a similar manner, releasing more energy and neutrons.
  3. Today, atomic nucleus can be split into smaller nuclei by means of nuclear fission.


  1. The atomic bomb was a nuclear explosion caused by the release of energy upon the splitting of the nuclei, from the elements of Plutonium or Uranium.
  2. The immense forces released by fission bombs are the result of the splitting of the nuclei of uranium or plutonium atoms.
  3. Nuclear Energy, energy released during the splitting or fusing of atomic nuclei.


  1. The strong force holds the quarks in protons and neutrons together, and it holds protons and neutrons together in the nuclei of atoms.
  2. It acts between the quarks, the constituents that build protons, neutrons and the nuclei.
  3. It is the force that binds quarks into protons and neutrons, and that also binds nuclei together.

Nuclear Force

  1. For an understanding of the interaction that holds protons and neutrons together inside nuclei see nuclear force.
  2. The nuclear force, or "strong" force, acts on protons and neutrons in nuclei.
  3. Nuclei consist of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons held together by the so-called strong or nuclear force.


  1. As you get still deeper into the hemispheres, the corona radiata dives into the deep nuclei of the brain, the caudate and putamen, splitting them in two.
  2. The corpus striatum is a term applied to the caudate nucleus and putamen because of the stripes between the two nuclei.
  3. Basal Ganglia The basal ganglia consist of: caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, & subthalamic nuclei.

Caudate Nuclei

  1. Bilateral thalami, caudate nuclei, lentiform nuclei, cerebral hemispheres, and cerebellum were measured by computer.
  2. Intervention Absolute cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time were measured in the thalamus, putamen, and caudate nuclei.
  3. Related dysfunction of the caudate nuclei may secondarily affect regions that are anatomically connected to these nuclei.


  1. Karyogamy is delayed, so that the compatible nuclei remain in pairs, called a dikaryon.
  2. Dikaryon: A hyphal compartment, mycelium or fungal cell occupied by a pair or pairs of closely associated, genetically different, sexually compatible nuclei.
  3. After plasmogamy, the nuclei from each parent join, but do not fuse (there are two nuclei), which forms a dikaryon.


  1. Inside a nuclear reactor the nuclei of U-235 atoms split (fission) and, in the process, release energy.
  2. Nuclei can undergo transformations that affect the number of protons and neutrons they contain, a process called radioactive decay.
  3. Nuclear fusion in the Sun, is a merger of smaller nuclei into heavier ones, releasing a lot of energy in the process.

Larger Nucleus

  1. Fusion Two or more nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus.
  2. Fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more small nuclei are forced together to form one larger nucleus.
  3. In nuclear fusion, two smaller nuclei fuse to form a larger nucleus.


  1. The pCG projects to the pulvinar and laterodorsal (LD) nuclei, which play important roles in visual attention and spatial memory.

Thalamic Nuclei

  1. Within the thalamus, the following thalamic nuclei are seen: dorsomedial (29), ventral lateral (8), pulvinar (14), and anterior (3).
  2. Cognitive and volitive systems project fibers from cortical areas of the cerebrum to thalamic nuclei and to other regions of the brainstem.
  3. The thalamus is largely made of nuclear groups that relate to specific functions in the brain (see List of thalamic nuclei).

Vestibular Nuclei

  1. It receives nerve fibres from the cerebral cortex, vestibular nuclei, globus pallidus, superior colliculus, reticular formation, and spinothalamic tract.
  2. Pass from vestibular nuclei in pons & medulla to the cortex of ipsilateralflocculo-nodular lobe.
  3. Purkinje neurons are GABAergic-meaning they have inhibitory synapses-with the neurons of the deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei in the brainstem.


  1. The inferior peduncle permits communication between the cerebellum and the nuclei of the medulla, carrying information to and from the spinal cord.
  2. Masses of grey matter outside of the surface of the cerebral cortex or the cerebellum are called nuclei.
  3. Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has an outer cortex, an inner white matter, and deep nuclei below the white matter.

Alpha Decay

  1. Alpha decay typically occurs in nuclei that are so big that they can't be stable.
  2. Interestingly some nuclei have been observed to undergo a double alpha decay in a hurry to shed mass.
  3. Alpha decay can essentially be thought of as nuclear fission where the parent nucleus splits into two daughter nuclei.

Radioactive Nuclei

  1. The study of gamma rays from radioactive nuclei suggests that nuclei, too, have energy levels.
  2. Alpha particles are emitted by radioactive nuclei such as uranium or radium in a process known as alpha decay.
  3. In bombs that gain their energy from fission of uranium-235 or plutonium-239, two radioactive nuclei are produced for every fissile nucleus split.

Neutron Capture

  1. Nuclei that fission as their predominant decay method after neutron capture include U-233, U-235, U-237, Pu-239, Pu-241.
  2. By neutron capture, nuclei of masses greater than 56 can be formed that could not be formed by thermonuclear reactions, i.e., by nuclear fusion.
  3. Since the creation of heavier nuclei by fusion costs energy, nature resorts to the process of neutron capture.

Heavier Nucleus

  1. Fusion is a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus.
  2. Fusion energy the energy produced when two light nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus.
  3. In this kind of reaction, two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus and in doing so, release a large amount of energy.


  1. A small group of fibers in the optic nerve splits off and travels down to brainstem nuclei, which are groups of cells governing reflex actions.
  2. Nuclei in the brainstem communicate with the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the spinal cord.
  3. The vestibular nuclei in the brainstem are analogous structures to the deep nuclei, and receive inputs from the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum.

Basal Nuclei

  1. The basal ganglia (basal nuclei) are masses of gray matter found deep in the cerebral hemispheres.
  2. Masses of gray matter that are present within the interior white matter are called basal ganglia or basal nuclei.
  3. These masses of grey matter, taken together, are the basal nuclei of the brain.

Beta Decay

  1. Some nuclei can undergo double beta decay (ββ decay) where the charge of the nucleus changes by two units.
  2. Its most familiar effect is beta decay (or the emission of electrons by protons or positrons by neutrons in atomic nuclei) and the associated radioactivity.
  3. The rates of nuclear decay indicate that any force involved in beta decay must be much weaker than the force that binds nuclei together.

Heavy Nuclei

  1. These include alpha decay and beta decay, and heavy nuclei such as uranium may also undergo fission.
  2. Finally, at the end of the heavy nuclei are made up of neutrons and protons are few in number, stability occurs when their numbers are about equal.
  3. Light nuclei can gain binding energy per nucleon by fusing; heavy nuclei by fissioning.

Different Nuclei

  1. Thus to judge or compare the stability of different nuclei we see binding energy per nucleon not the nuclear binding energy.
  2. About 10,000 different nuclei are predicted to exist because of the possible combinations of protons and neutrons.
  3. Many exhibit heterokaryosis, the presence of different nuclei in the same cytoplasm due to mutation or plasmogamy with different hyphae.


  1. The relative stability of two nuclei with different numbers of nucleons can be assessed by comparing their mass loss per nucleon.
  2. The mass losses or binding energies per nucleon are plotted above for all nuclei from helium through uranium.
  3. The nuclei of most atom s consist of proton s and neutrons, which are therefore collectively referred to as nucleon s.

Nuclear Fission

  1. In physics, nuclear fission is a process where a large nucleus such as uranium is split into two smaller nuclei.
  2. Nuclear fission is a process in which the nucleus of an atom splits, usually into two daughter nuclei.
  3. In nuclear fission, the nuclei of atoms are split, causing energy to be released.

Smaller Nuclei

  1. Under certain conditions, nuclei can break apart into smaller nuclei in a process called nuclear fission.
  2. For some of the heaviest elements, the nuclei can undergo nuclear fission, the splitting of nuclei into two smaller nuclei.
  3. Nuclear fission is the opposite process, causing a nucleus to split into two smaller nuclei - usually through radioactive decay.

Basal Ganglia

  1. The other nuclei of the basal ganglia are the subthalamus and the substantia nigra (although anatomically the latter lies in the midbrain).
  2. The other nuclei of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) can be seen as well.
  3. The basal nuclei, or basal ganglia, are four masses of gray matter deep in the cerebrum: the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala.


  1. The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem.
  2. These are a group of nuclei in the brain that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem.
  3. The neurons of the spinothalamic system ascend through the brainstem to the ventral posterolateral nucleus and the other nuclei of the thalamus.

Fusion Reactions

  1. In fusion reactions two nuclei come together and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
  2. Fusion reactions, also called thermonuclear reactions, are reactions between the nuclei of certain isotopes of light elements.
  3. Enough heat is generated by the fusion reactions to force other nuclei to collide and undergo fusion so the reaction is sustained.

Helium Nuclei

  1. Alpha rays consist of helium nuclei (with positive charge) made of two protons and two neutrons (He-4).
  2. Then in 1932 Chadwick discovered the neutron and it was realized that helium nuclei contained two protons, two neutrons and no electrons.
  3. On Earth it is created by the radioactive decay of much heavier elements (alpha particles are helium nuclei produced by the decay of uranium).

Haploid Nuclei

  1. Finally, the two haploid nuclei in each basidium fuse - a process termed karyogamy) to form a diploid nucleus.
  2. Ultimately, the two haploid nuclei in each basidium fuse (karyogamy) to form a diploid nucleus.
  3. Third, the zygote undergoes meiosis to form two haploid nuclei.


  1. These fuse to produce the gametangium, which undergoes plasmogamy (the mixing of cytoplasm) and karyogamy (the fusion of nuclei).
  2. Fusion of the nuclei (karyogamy) takes place in the U-shaped cells in the hymenium, and results in the formation of a diploid zygote.
  3. The two nuclei in the terminal cell (ascus) of the dikareotic hyphae, fuse "karyogamy" and become a diploid nucleus.

Heavier Nuclei

  1. Nuclei up to helium formed, but collisions were too soft for heavier nuclei to form.
  2. Such nuclides are stable up to 40 Ca (made of 10 helium nuclei), but heavier nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons are radioactive.
  3. The process that produces energy in stars is called thermonuclear fusion, the joining of nuclei into heavier nuclei.


  1. Neutrons
  2. Protons
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Atoms
  4. Nucleus
  5. Nature > Matter > Particles > Electrons



    Related Keywords

      * Alpha Particle * Alpha Particles * Atom * Atomic Nuclei * Atoms * Binding * Binding Energy * Brain * Cell * Cells * Cortex * Decay * Electrons * Energy * Fission * Form * Forming * Form Nuclei * Fusion * Helium * Hydrogen * Hydrogen Nuclei * Isotopes * Meiosis * Neutron * Neutrons * Nuclear Fusion * Nucleons * Nucleus * Particle * Particles * Proton * Protons * Result * Stability * Stable * Stable Nuclei * Unstable * Unstable Nuclei * Uranium * Uranium Nuclei
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