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Nystagmus       Article     History   Tree Map
  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Health > Diseases > Symptoms > Ataxia > Nystagmus   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
TORSIONAL NYSTAGMUS
VIDEO
PENDULAR NYSTAGMUS
EYE MOVEMENTS
SEE-SAW
POSITIONAL
GAZE
UPBEAT NYSTAGMUS
CANAL
CONGENITAL NYSTAGMUS
DOWNBEAT NYSTAGMUS
OCULAR
OPPOSITE
EVOKED
VESTIBULAR
LESIONS
VERTICAL NYSTAGMUS
ACQUIRED
ACCOMPANIED
SECONDS
HORIZONTAL NYSTAGMUS
COMMON CAUSE
PATTERN
SUPPRESSION
ELICITED
OPTOKINETIC NYSTAGMUS
ABDUCTION NYSTAGMUS
INTENTION TREMOR
DIRECTION
RARE
BRAIN
ASSOCIATED
HEAD INJURY
TREATMENT
SEIZURES
VESTIBULAR NUCLEI
PTOSIS
STRABISMUS
VOMITING
EYE
EYES
DISEASE
IRREVERSIBLE
TREMOR
DEGREE
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Nystagmus"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Nystagmus is a combination of alternating slow and fast phase eye movements in opposite directions.
  2. Nystagmus is defined as involuntary movement of the eyes.
  3. Nystagmus is an associated sign, and is usually unidirectional and never vertical.
  4. Nystagmus is an infratentorial sign, and thus is due to posterior circulation ischemia in stroke patients.
  5. Nystagmus was considered to be present only when it was seen on forward gaze.

Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Neuro-ophthalmology Barton JJS, Cox TA. Acquired pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis: clinical observations and the role of optic neuropathy.
  2. Aschoff J, Conrad B, Kornhuber HH. Acquired pendular nystagmus with oscillopsia in multiple sclerosis: a sign of cerebellar disease.
  3. Similar acquired pendular nystagmus in adults can be caused by multiple sclerosis, and follow brainstem infarcts.

Torsional Nystagmus

  1. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia and ipsiversive torsional nystagmus.
  2. Localizing value of torsional nystagmus in small midbrain lesions.
  3. We report a case of a 72-year-old male who developed brainstem stroke and was found to have left INO with torsional nystagmus.
  4. Torsional nystagmus generally accompanies horizontal nystagmus due to labyrinthine disease.

Video

  1. Under video Frenzel goggles, it is common to see nystagmus provoked by vibration over the ears, over the front or back of the neck.
  2. Supplemental material on the site DVD: Video of upbeating nystagmus due to Wernicke's encephalopathy.

Pendular Nystagmus

  1. Spasmus nutans is a transient pendular nystagmus that occurs in children, accompanied by a head tremor and torticollus.
  2. Vertical pendular nystagmus associated with oculopalatal myoclonus syndome.
  3. Most frequently, pendular nystagmus is caused by central lesions involving the central tegmental tract.

Eye Movements

  1. Any disease of the brain (such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors) can cause nystagmus if the areas controlling eye movements are damaged.
  2. Electronystagmography - A method by which eye movements are recorded and by which the origin of nystagmus may be elucidated.

See-Saw

  1. Jerk waveform see-saw nystagmus due to unilateral mesodiencephalic lesion.
  2. Barton JJS. Blink- and saccade-induced see-saw nystagmus.
  3. Prior to the diagnosis of MS, he had no history of childhood strabismus, nystagmus, acute optic neuritis, or acute visual loss.

Positional

  1. Nystagmus may occur in people with brain damage, brain tumors or inner ear diseases.
  2. In that context, torsional nystagmus is generally attributed to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
  3. Objectives: To clarify the clinical significance of positional down beat nystagmus (pDBN).
  4. Haynes DS., 2002. Treatment of benign positional vertigo using the semont maneuver: efficacy in patients presenting without nystagmus.

Gaze

  1. This is assessed in the horizontal gaze nystagmus test.
  2. All patients had truncal ataxia, nystagmus, dysmetria, and dysarthria.
  3. There may be nystagmus, ocular dysmetria and poor pursuit.
  4. The clinical picture included cerebellar ataxia, gaze and rebound nystagmus.

Upbeat Nystagmus

  1. For complete unilateral lesions, a small residual nystagmus may persist for years.
  2. Primary position upbeat nystagmus due to unilateral medial medullary infarction.
  3. Upbeat nystagmus can be modulated by convergence, changing into downbeat, when it occurs congenitally as well as when associated with Wernicke's.

Canal

  1. In this case, it may be a peripheral nystagmus -- anterior canal BPPV, rather than a central nystagmus.
  2. The aim of the positioning test is to make otoconia in the posterior semicircular canal move and so provoke vertigo and nystagmus.

Congenital Nystagmus

  1. Foveation dynamics in congenital nystagmus.
  2. Isolated absence of optic chiasm revealed by congenital nystagmus, MRI and VEPs.
  3. Latent Nystagmus is a variant of congenital nystagmus although some authors prefer to reserve the term congenital nystagmus for other variants.

Downbeat Nystagmus

  1. We report clinical and oculomotor findings in three patients with motor neuronopathy and downbeat nystagmus, a classic sign of vestibulocerebellar disease.
  2. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia associated with ipsilateral downbeat nystagmus and contralateral incyclorotatory nystagmus.
  3. Barton JJS, Huaman AG, Sharpe JA. Muscarinic antagonists in the treatment of acquired pendular and downbeat nystagmus.

Ocular

  1. Seesaw nystagmus is a rare binocular disorder characterized by alternating vertical skew deviation and conjugate ocular torsion.
  2. Seesaw nystagmus associated with involuntary torsional head oscillations.
  3. His ocular examination disclosed fixed pupils, minimal nystagmus, and a fluctuating gaze paresis.
  4. Doc Ophthalmol 1975; 39:155–82.[Medline] Hoyt CS. Nystagmus and other abnormal ocular movements in children.

Opposite

  1. The nystagmus beats paradoxically in the opposite direction to that anticipated from the direction of drum movement.
  2. In the author's experience with Wernicke's, the nystagmus has a peculiar increase on downgaze (one would expect the opposite).

Evoked

  1. Head-shaking nystagmus is the nystagmus evoked by moving the head sinusoidally, typically for 20 cycles.
  2. This type of nystagmus is rare, and is classically due to the Arnold Chiari malformation.
  3. An inborn achiasmatic malformation associated with visuotopic misrouting, visual evoked potential ipsilateral asymmetry and nystagmus.

Vestibular

  1. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma.
  2. Most commonly spontaneous nystagmus is caused by a vestibular imbalance.
  3. Spontaneous nystagmus denotes movement of the eyes without a cognitive, visual or vestibular stimulus.
  4. In very high velocity vestibular nystagmus, or in persons with poor vision, fixation may be ineffective also.
  5. Such rebound nystagmus is prominent in patients with disease affecting the vestibular cerebellum.

Lesions

  1. Somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, fatigue, and nystagmus may be seen with gabapentin.
  2. In midbrain lesions, small amounts of torsional nystagmus may last for years.
  3. This type of nystagmus is classically due to a dorsal midbrain lesion.
  4. We have seen one case of vertical pendular nystagmus due to superior canal dehiscence.
  5. This is unsurprising as lithium toxicity can induce other types of central nystagmus and is also a cerebellar toxin.

Vertical Nystagmus

  1. Horizontal and vertical nystagmus, loss of fast saccadic eye movements and impairment of upward gaze.
  2. Sometimes a horizontal and vertical nystagmus will occur together.
  3. Dissociated vertical nystagmus and internuclear ophthalmoplegia from a midbrain infarction.

Acquired

  1. A double-blind controlled study of gabapentin and baclofen as treatment for acquired nystagmus.
  2. Can J Ophthalmol 1967; 2:4–10.[Medline] Leigh RJ. Clinical features and pathogenesis of acquired forms of nystagmus.
  3. Availability of treatment for acquired nystagmus will vary with the cause.

Accompanied

  1. Vertigo (a sensation of spinning), is often accompanied by nystagmus.
  2. Dysarthria was found later, sometimes accompanied by nystagmus and scoliosis.

Seconds

  1. The nystagmus lasts for several seconds and can easily be seen.
  2. The mean second phase nystagmus duration lasted 33.4 seconds.

Horizontal Nystagmus

  1. The term "dancing eyes" has been used in regional dialect to describe nystagmus.
  2. The other eye exhibits jerking movements (nystagmus) when the patient tries to look left.
  3. Nystagmus refers to rapid involuntary movements of the eyes that may be from side to side (horizontal nystagmus), up and down (vertical nystagmus) or rotary.
  4. The officer also checks for vertical nystagmus.
  5. It is characterised by horizontal nystagmus and an intense vertigo, provoked by rotation of the head in a supine patient.

Common Cause

  1. Multiple sclerosis is the most common cause of this sort of nystagmus.
  2. A less common cause of nystagmus is disease or injury of the central nervous system.
  3. In young people the most common cause of acquired nystagmus is head injury from motor vehicle accidents.

Pattern

  1. Nystagmus can occur normally, such as when tracking a visual pattern.
  2. Rarely, nystagmus occurs as a result of congenital diseases of the eye that cause poor vision.
  3. The orientation of these alternating movements (side to side, up and down, or in a circular pattern) depends on the type of nystagmus.
  4. These congenital variants of nystagmus are usually evident from the examination and history of lifelong eye problems.

Suppression

  1. Suppression of pendular nystagmus by smoking cannabis in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
  2. Takemori S, Cohen B. (1974) Loss of visual suppression of vestibular nystagmus after flocculus lesions.
  3. Alpert JN, (1974) Failure of fixation suppression: a pathologic effect of vision on caloric nystagmus.

Elicited

  1. A normal response, consisting of a nystagmus beating away from the stimulated ear, can be elicited with as little as 0.2 ml of ice cold water.
  2. Downbeating nystagmus can be elicited by the head-shaking test.
  3. Torsional nystagmus is more commonly elicited by positional maneuvers such as the Dix-Hallpike test.

Optokinetic Nystagmus

  1. Another type of physiological nystagmus is the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN). It can be induced by presenting a moving pattern.

Abduction Nystagmus

  1. On right gaze the nystagmus increased in amplitude superimposed on abduction nystagmus.

Intention Tremor

  1. The cerebellar signs include finger-to-nose or heel-shin dysmetria, gait ataxia, intention tremor and nystagmus.

Direction

  1. The direction of nystagmus is defined by the direction of its quick phase (e.g., right nystagmus is due to a right moving quick phase).

Rare

  1. Although this is rare, an ophthalmologist should evaluate any child with nystagmus to check for this.
  2. The association of INO with torsional nystagmus is rare.

Brain

  1. The involuntary eye movements of nystagmus are caused by abnormal function in the areas of the brain that control eye movements.

Associated

  1. This is associated with abnormal eye movements called nystagmus, specifically positional alcohol nystagmus.

Head Injury

  1. In young people the most common cause of acquired nystagmus is head injury from motor vehicle accidents.

Treatment

  1. Availability of treatment for acquired nystagmus will vary with the cause.

Seizures

  1. Other reported neurological findings include nystagmus, seizures, abnormal electroencephalograms, hyposmia, and mild atrophy of the brain.

Vestibular Nuclei

  1. Optokinetic nystagmus involves the vestibular nuclei, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and the oculomotor nuclei.

Ptosis

  1. In addition, each syndrome is associated with characteristic features, such as nystagmus or ptosis.

Strabismus

  1. Treatment options for strabismus and nystagmus does apply to these individuals.

Vomiting

  1. There is a sudden onset of ataxia (which can be severe), head tilt, nystagmus and occasionally vomiting.

Eye

  1. Rarely, nystagmus occurs as a result of congenital diseases of the eye that cause poor vision.
  2. The other eye exhibits jerking movements (nystagmus) when the patient tries to look left.
  3. Neurological examination revealed left INO: adduction paralysis at left eye and normal convergence with abduction nystagmus in right eye.

Eyes

  1. Nystagmus refers to rapid involuntary movements of the eyes that may be from side to side (horizontal nystagmus), up and down (vertical nystagmus) or rotary.

Disease

  1. A less common cause of nystagmus is disease or injury of the central nervous system.
  2. Any disease of the brain (such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors) can cause nystagmus if the areas controlling eye movements are damaged.

Irreversible

  1. In most cases, except for those caused by Dilantin or alcohol intoxication, nystagmus is irreversible.

Tremor

  1. Infants and children can also have seizures, ataxia, abnormal eye movements (nystagmus), tremor, and dystonia.

Degree

  1. The degree of physiological nystagmus varies greatly between people and even in the same person at different times.

Categories

  1. Health > Diseases > Symptoms > Ataxia
  2. Vertigo
  3. Dysarthria
  4. Senses > Vision > Eye > Photophobia
  5. Glossaries > Glossary of Neurology /

Related Keywords

    * Ataxia * Blurred Vision * Congenital * Dizziness * Dysarthria * Impairment * Photophobia * Signs * Symptoms * Vertigo
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  Short phrases about "Nystagmus"
  Originally created: March 09, 2007.
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