
Review of Short Phrases and Links 
This Review contains major "Orbitals" related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.
Definitions
 Orbitals are filled in the order of increasing n + l; Where two orbitals have the same value of n + l, they are filled in order of increasing n.
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 Orbitals are a model representation of the behaviour of electrons within molecules.
 Orbitals are occupied by electrons from lowest energy orbital to highest energy orbital (in the order s, p, d, f).
 Orbitals are designated by the notation: n S g.
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 The orbitals are organized into shells and subshells, based on their overall energy and angular momentum.
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 Such wave patterns, called orbitals, describe the distribution of individual electrons.
 Electrons in an atom, for example, can shift between the different energy levels corresponding to orbitals in different shells.
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 Consequently the spatial symmetries of atomic orbitals are completely determined by the angular momentum quantum numbers l and m.
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 The MO diagram for diboron (BB electron configuration boron: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1) requires the introduction of an atomic orbital overlap model for p orbitals.
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 The next step in constructing an MO diagram is filling the newly formed molecular orbitals with electrons.
 After all, this is how the concept of stable electron orbitals is working even on quantum level.
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 It can be decomposed into a series of atomic orbitals which form a basis for the possible wave functions.
 Band structures of materials like Si, GaAs, SiO 2 and diamond for instance are well described by TBHamiltonians on the basis of atomic sp 3 orbitals.
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 In this approach, the molecular orbitals are expressed as linear combinations of atomic orbitals.
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 You must always remember that the number of hybrid orbital you create equals the number of atomic orbitals that was initially combined.
 Quantum mechanically, this corresponds to mixing orbitals that differ in the l and m quantum numbers, such as the s (l =0) and p (l =1) atomic orbitals.
 The solutions are oneelectron functions and are referred to as hydrogenlike atomic orbitals.
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 This MO is called the bonding orbital and its energy is lower than that of the original atomic orbitals.
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 These molecular orbitals are a cross between the original atomic orbitals and generally extend between the two bonding atoms.
 The 1 s and 2 s atomic orbitals and the 2 p orbital which is directed along the bond axis are all left unchanged by a rotation about the symmetry axis.
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 In considering the formation of molecular orbitals it is often useful to think in terms of hybrid atomic orbitals.
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 The dsp 3 orbitals are constructed from the hydrogen 3s, 3p x, 3p y, 3p z and 3d z 2 orbitals.
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 The individual orbitals represent a certain amount of energy.
 The linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation for molecular orbitals was introduced in 1929 by Sir John LennardJones.
 The main reason why electrons exist in higher energy orbitals is because only two electrons can exist in any orbital.
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 Aufbau or Buildup Principle Electrons enter and fill lower energy orbitals before higher energy orbitals.
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 Thus the s subshell has only one orbital, the p subshell has three orbitals, and so on.
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 Thus, electrons fill orbitals in the order specified by the energy sequence given above.
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 This behaviour stems from the best overlap of the 2 p orbitals of the adjacent carbons when the pi bond has to be formed.
 The sum of X and E, sometimes known as the steric number, is also associated with the total number of hybridised orbitals used by valence bond theory.
 See Linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital method.The quantum number n first appeared in the Bohr model.
 Degenerate orbitals for electrons in an atomic subshell are orbitals at identical energy levels.
 In hydrogenlike atoms all degenerate orbitals of fixed n and l, m and s varying between certain values (see below) form an atomic shell.
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 To answer this, we need to understand the concept of degenerate orbitals.
 Electrons in bonding orbitals result in the formation of a chemical bond, while those in antibonding orbitals prevent bonding.
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 The sign of the phase itself does not have physical meaning except when mixing orbitals to form molecular orbitals.
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 The shapes of orbitals The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2p x,2p y, and 2p z.
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 This illustration shows the wave functions of the first five atomic orbitals.
 Electrons can transfer between different orbitals by the emission or absorption of photons with an energy that matches the difference in potential.
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 Since two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins, this causes electrons to prefer to occupy different orbitals.
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 Circling the nucleus in different orbitals are electrons, negatively charged particles.
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 Density diagrams of the molecular orbitals for the LiH, CH, and HF molecules are illustrated in Fig.
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 Shows the orbitals (wave functions) of the hydrogen atom.
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 Figure 1 shows the proliferation of molecular orbitals that are formed as an increasing number of Na atoms are combined to make the solid.
 Also available is the Grand Table, showing many, many more orbitals in six different organizations.
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 A convenient way of showing the orbitals that the electrons live in is to draw "electronsinboxes".
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 That was modified by Sommerfeld from circular to elliptical orbits depending upon serveral factors, and that was modified to suborbits (orbitals).
 The rules for electron aufbau, i.e., how electrons are placed in orbitals, are given by the following rough scheme.
 These plots resembles the shapes of the atomic orbitals, but they are not atomic orbitals because the radial factor is missing.
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 When a weak ligand complexes the metal ion, the crystal field splitting is small and the electrons can still occupy all of the d orbitals without pairing.
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 In most atoms, orbitals of differing l are not exactly degenerate but separated into a fine structure.
 It considers atomic orbitals as "boxes" of fixed energy into which can be placed two electrons and no more.
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 The electronic structure can be illustrated adding electrons to boxes (to represent orbitals).
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 Orbitals that are "p" orbitals can hold up to six (6) electrons in their cloud.
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 The sigma antibonding molecular orbital is less stable than the atomic orbitals.
 An orbital consists of a set of quantum states that have a particular energy, and only a discrete set of these orbitals exist around the nucleus.
 The superatom suggestion is that free electrons in the cluster occupy a new set of orbitals that are defined by the entire group of atoms, i.e.
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 The set of orbitals associated with a particular value of are sometimes collectively called a subshell.
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 Electrons are found in pairs in orbitals of the atom.
 The s orbitals for all n numbers are the only orbitals with an antinode (a region of high wave function density) at the center of the nucleus.
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 A chromophore is a region in a molecule where the energy difference between two different molecular orbitals falls within the range of the visible spectrum.
 Note in particular that the size of the energy splitting is different for the different orbitals, because the g J values are different.
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 For this reason, orbitals with the same value of n are said to comprise a " shell ".
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 According to the value of m, orbitals can be divided on the basis of their energy.
 An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n.
 The atom quantum state is defined just by the quantum state of it's electron orbitals, not the nuclei.
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 The pattern here is the same as that for the electron orbitals, which serves as a memory guide.
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 The development of physical theories of electron orbitals in hydrogen was important in the development of quantum mechanics.
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 Atomic orbitals are then described, using a minimum of mathematics, followed by a discussion of the electron configurations of the elements.
Categories
 Nature > Matter > Particles > Electrons
 Nature > Matter > Atoms > Atom
 Orbital
 Anatomy > Mouth > Teeth > Bonding
 Shells
Related Keywords
* Angular Momentum
* Angular Momentum Quantum Number
* Approximations
* Atom
* Atomic
* Atomic Orbitals
* Atoms
* Aufbau Principle
* Axes
* Balmer Series
* Bond
* Bonding
* Bonding Orbitals
* Carbon
* Carbon Atom
* Carbon Atoms
* Case
* Chemical Bonds
* Complicated
* Different Energies
* Eigenfunctions
* Electron
* Electrons
* Electron Cloud
* Electron Configuration
* Electron Shells
* Energies
* Energy
* Energy Levels
* Form
* Forms
* Geometry
* Higher
* High Probability
* Hybrid
* Hybridisation
* Hybridization
* Hybrids
* Hybrid Orbitals
* Hydrogen
* Hydrogen Atom
* Increasing Energy
* Interactions
* Mathematically
* Mixtures
* Molecular Orbital
* Molecular Orbitals
* Molecular Orbital Theory
* Molecule
* Molecules
* Nucleons
* Nucleus
* Number
* Orbital
* Order
* Orientation
* Origin
* Overlap
* Overlapping
* Oxygen Atom
* Possible
* Protons
* Quantum
* Quantum Number
* Related
* Shape
* Shapes
* Shell
* Shells
* Somewhat
* Space
* Spherical
* Stable Form
* Structure
* Subshell
* Subshells
* Symmetries
* Symmetry
* Theory
* Transition Metals
* Valence
* Whole Number

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