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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Systems > Process > Oxidation   Michael Charnine

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  1. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
  2. Oxidation is the process which makes the leaves turn dark on exposure to oxygen.
  3. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent.
  4. Oxidation is the primary metabolic pathway for hydrogen sulfide, with thiosulfate and sulfate as metabolites.
  5. Oxidation is the process that results in the flavor profiles of oolong & black tea.


  1. Primary alcohols generally give aldehyde s or carboxylic acid s upon oxidation, while secondary alcohols give ketone s.
  2. Alcohols are formed in the result of oxidation and salts of carboxylic acid in the result of reduction.
  3. Primary alcohols generally give aldehydes or carboxylic acid upon oxidation, while secondary alcohols give ketones.


  1. Thus, continued small amounts of oxidation during aging doesn't hurt the flavor or keeping quality of Sherry, unlike the case with table wines.


  1. After the flor dies, the yeast sinks to the bottom of the wine and is no longer able to protect the Sherry from oxidation.
  2. Oxidation - The process of aging that occurs when oxygen comes in contact with wine.
  3. In this process, the wine is gradually exposed to oxidation to soften the tannins and add the flavor of wood.

Green Teas

  1. Green teas, the earliest form of tea, are processed without oxidation.
  2. Green teas are plucked, withered, heated (by steam or by roasting) to prevent oxidation, and rolled.
  3. Green teas are picked, withered, rolled, and then fired to stop further oxidation.

Green Tea

  1. Green tea is a tea made up primarily of Camellia Sinesis that has gone through a process called oxidation.
  2. Green tea The oxidation process at a predetermined stage by removing the water from the leaves via heating.
  3. Green tea undergoes little to no oxidation, while black tea undergoes longer oxidation, or exposure to oxygen in the air.

Black Teas

  1. Over this time, Pu-erh teas ferment, which leads to their earthy flavor, as opposed to the flavor of oolong or black teas, which comes from oxidation.
  2. Over this time it acquires an earthy flavour due to fermentation (not the oxidation used for oolong or black teas).
  3. Oolong tea is a semi-oxidized tea that falls between green and black teas in oxidation.

Black Tea

  1. Oolong (Wulong) Oxidation is stopped somewhere between the standards for green tea and black tea.
  2. Oolong () whose oxidation is stopped somewhere in-between that of green tea and black tea.
  3. Our Black Tea undergoes a full oxidation (fermentation) process, which causes the leaves to turn black and gives them their characteristic flavor and aroma.


  1. When the leaf is broken, bruised, or crushed, the enzymes are exposed to oxygen resulting in oxidation.
  2. The oxidation occurs when enzymes in the tea plant are either bruised, broken or crushed so that the enzymes are exposed to air.
  3. Bruising: In order to promote and quicken oxidation, the leaves may be bruised by tumbling in baskets or by being kneaded or rolled-over by heavy wheels.


  1. It helps in the process of oxidation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  2. Among the various amino acids found in proteins, methionine (Met) is one of the most susceptible to oxidation.
  3. For example, the chemosynthesis of carbohydrates or proteins occurs in living cells using energy from the oxidation of food stuffs.

Thiol Groups

  1. Disulfide bonds in proteins are formed by oxidation of the thiol groups of cysteine residues.
  2. Second, the thiol group of cysteine can react with other thiol groups in an oxidation reaction that yields a disulfide bond.

Oxidizing Agent

  1. In addition, in the method for producing carboxylic acid by oxidation of ketone, nitric acid is used as the oxidizing agent (Chem.
  2. Step 1: The oxidation reaction can be carried out by a conventional method using an oxidizing agent with or without a base in a suitable solvent.
  3. The oxidizing agent may be chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, persulfate, perborate or electrochemical oxidation may be used.

Reducing Agent

  1. They also discuss in some detail the use of 0.1 M sodium borohydride as a reducing agent following oxidation.
  2. Featuring sulfur in the +4 oxidation state, sulfur dioxide is a reducing agent.
  3. The equivalent weight of a reducing agent is determined by the change in oxidation number that the oxidised element undergoes.


  1. The next step in processing is to stop this oxidation by removing the water from the leaves via heating.
  2. Manganese Greensand filters remove ferrous and ferric iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide from water through oxidation and filtration.
  3. Respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide during oxidation and releasing energy and water.


  1. White tea Young leaves or new growth buds that have undergone minimal oxidation through a slight amount of wilting before halting the oxidation with heat.
  2. Wilting is used to remove excess water from the leaves and allows a very light amount of oxidation.
  3. Wilting: The tea leaves will begin to wilt soon after picking, with a gradual onset of enzymatic oxidation.


  1. Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions).
  2. In addition, oxidation of acetic acid solvent for the liquid phase reaction tends to increase in cobalt and manganese-catalyzed oxidations without bromine.
  3. The processing can include oxidation (fermentation), heating, drying and the addition of other herbs, flowers, spices and fruits.


  1. Amine oxide derivatives of 3º-amines and pyridine are readily prepared by oxidation with peracids or peroxides, as shown by the upper right equation.
  2. Another method, the oxidation of acetic anhydride by peroxides, is conceptually similar.
  3. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones with peroxides.


  1. If metals are oxidized, the oxidation can be scraped off to determine the color of the unoxidized metal.
  2. Mass increases are noted with adsorption, absorption, and chemical reactions of the sample with the atmosphere in the oven, such as the oxidation of metals.
  3. Surface oxidation, partially adherent layers of corrosion products, left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing atmospheres.

Noble Metals

  1. Noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion or oxidation, unlike most base metals.
  2. The noble metals have been used as catalysts for the partial oxidation of methane, but they are scarce and expensive.


  1. This reaction has as its mechanism the oxidation of ethanol by oxygen contained in the air, to acetic acid.
  2. Vinegar is made from the oxidation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria.
  3. It is formed by the partial oxidation of ethanol; oxidation of acetaldehyde forms acetic acid.


  1. The oxidation of ethane by oxygenproduced only ethylene and carbon oxides.
  2. The most important epoxide in terms of industrial scale is ethylene oxide, which is produced by oxidation of ethylene with oxygen.
  3. Numerous methods are known for the catalytic oxidation of ethylene to acetic acid.

Oxidation Product

  1. Moreover, the acetaldehyde (the oxidation product) can interfere with the activation of vitamins.
  2. X represents a hydrogen atom or an atom or group capable of splitting off upon reaction with the oxidation product of a color developing agent.


  1. Vinegar is its dilute solution, from fermentation and oxidation (see oxidation-reduction) of natural products.
  2. In a suitable electrolyte HF solution, oxidation-reduction will be followed by dissolution of the oxidation product such that etching will proceed.


  1. Ignition, after the engine is started, comes from oxidation heat and mechanical compression of the air or mixture.
  2. Thus, the impurities, reaction intermediates and aromatic carboxylic acid product are returned to the oxidation reaction mixture.
  3. The most common oxidation state of scandium is +3 and this metal is not attacked by a 1:1 mixture of H N O 3 and 48% H F.


  1. Most of it is converted to adipic acid by oxidation, via the intermediaries cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone.
  2. Commercially most of cyclohexane produced is converted into cyclohexanone - cyclohexanol mixture (or " KA oil ") by catalytic oxidation.
  3. For example, billion kilograms of cyclohexanone are produced annually by aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane.


  1. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air, this oxide layer stops the further, bulk corrosion.
  2. As little as 1 percent gadolinium improves the workability and resistance of iron, chromium, and related alloys to high temperatures and oxidation.
  3. Iron, in contrast, has an oxide that forms in air and water, called rust, that does not stop the further oxidation of the iron.


  1. When iron(III) oxidation of pyrite occurs, the process can become rapid.
  2. The ferrous iron is then available for oxidation by the bacterium; this cycle continues until the pyrite is depleted.
  3. The formal oxidation states are, however, the same as in pyrite because again the sulfur atoms occur in persulfide-like pairs.

Manganese Dioxide

  1. Manganese(IV) oxide (manganese dioxide, MnO 2) is used as a reagent in organic chemistry for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols (i.e.


  1. The direct oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid using chromic acid is given below.
  2. Reduction by sodium amalgam converts it into isopropyl alcohol; oxidation by chromic acid gives carbon dioxide and acetic acid.


  1. The presence of water in a solution of sodium chloride must be examined in respect to its reduction and oxidation in both electrodes.
  2. Oxidation Process by which the presence of oxygen causes wine to decompose.
  3. Selective oxidation of thiols in the presence of other oxidizable functional groups, such as alcohol and sulfide, is a noteworthy advantage of this method.


  1. Oxidation of glucose is known as glycolysis.Glucose is oxidized to either lactate or pyruvate.
  2. Black teas undergo several hours of oxidation in their preparation for market; oolongs receive less oxidation, and green teas are not oxidized at all.
  3. Black teas undergo several hours of oxidation (Fermentation), oolongs receive less oxidation or are semi-fermented, and green teas are not oxidized at all.


  1. Thiosulfate is tetrahedral, and the central sulfur is in the formal oxidation state 6+; and the terminal sulfur is in the formal oxidation state 2-.

Benzyl Alcohol

  1. It is formed by partial oxidation of benzyl alcohol, and on oxidation forms benzoic acid.


  1. Other methods are such as by the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cinnamic acid; by hydrolysis of benzonitrile, benzoyl chloride.
  2. Benzaldehyde is also unstable with respect to further oxidation and also should not accumulate in the generic process.
  3. A functionalized polyoxometalate solid for selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde.


  1. Katsuki, Y., Matsumoto, S., and Tsuyuki, H. (1987) Air oxidation of unsaturated triglycerides and prevention of oxidation.
  2. Sulfur Dioxide: A pungent gas used in wine to inhibit wild yeast growth, to protect wine from air oxidation and to inhibit browning in juice and wine.
  3. The liquid furnace matte is then subjected to air oxidation, in a process known as converting, to remove most of the iron and sulfur.


  1. Oxidation of butyraldehyde to butyric acid [107-92-6]is most commonly carried out employing air or oxygen as the oxidant.
  2. Soc. 89, 3662 (1967) describes the oxidation of toluene to benzyl alcohol using lead tetrakis (trifluoroacetate) as oxidant.
  3. Oxidant: A substance that brings about oxidation in other substances.


  1. Permanganate oxidation of alkenes.
  2. For example, oxidation with permanganate converts the methyl group to carboxyl (-COOH), to produce benzoic acid.
  3. The oxidation of a -silyl alcohol 129 with ordinary oxidizing reagents like permanganate and chromic acid leads to acylsilanes 130 (Scheme 52).

Maleic Anhydride

  1. Maleic anhydride was traditionally manufactured by the oxidation of benzene or other aromatic compounds.
  2. Maleic anhydride is produced from benzene or butane in an oxidation process.
  3. Maleic anhydride is prepared by aerobic oxidation of butane.


  1. Acetic anhydride is mainly produced by the carbonylation of methyl acetate.[ 5] Maleic anhydride is produced by the oxidation of benzene or butane.
  2. The acetaldehyde may be produced via oxidation of butane or light naphtha, or by hydration of ethylene.
  3. It is known that butane can be converted by oxidation to acetic acid.

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

  1. Acetyl-CoA is generated in the mitochondria primarily from two sources, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) reaction and fatty acid oxidation.
  2. Pyruvate decarboxylation is also known as the "pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction" because it also involves the oxidation of pyruvate.
  3. These modifications of pyruvate dehydrogenase are associated with a 35% decrease in glucose oxidation during reperfusion.


  1. More ATP is generated from the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
  2. Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA and oxidation continues in the citric acid cycle.
  3. Functions in reverse direction in glycolysis (enolase) and forward direction in fatty acid oxidation and in the citric acid cycle (fumarase).


  1. Iron usually appears dark brown, from oxidation or impurity, but when pure, or on a fresh surface, is a gray or white metal.
  2. The names of the atom types for metals are based on the symmetry of the metal complex and on both the oxidation state and coordination number of the metal.
  3. The metal of the anode will oxidize, going from an oxidation state of 0 (in the solid form) to a positive oxidation state and become an ion.


  1. Electron transferring (Reduction-Oxidation) One area on the surface of the metal acts as the anode, which is where the oxidation (corrosion) occurs.
  2. The anode is defined as the electrode where oxidation occurs and the cathode is the electrode where the reduction takes place.
  3. Because the oxidation reaction occurs in the anode, direct utilization of the carbon monoxide is possible.


  1. In organic compounds, such as butane or ethanol, the loss of hydrogen implies oxidation of the molecule from which it is lost (and the hydrogen is reduced).
  2. For reactions involving oxygen, the gain of oxygen implies the oxidation of the atom or molecule to which the oxygen is added (and the oxygen is reduced).
  3. An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules.

Aldehyde Group

  1. Oxidation of the aldehyde group to a carboxylic acid is straightforward.

Pyruvate Oxidation

  1. Pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria is associated with an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψ m).


  1. Identification of acetyl coenzyme A in the early 1950s facilitated the understanding of pyruvate oxidation, fatty acid oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
  2. Coenzyme A is necessary for fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, pyruvate oxidation, and other acetylation reactions.
  3. A. lactate fermentation B. pyruvate oxidation C. glycolysis D. the citric acid cycle 7.


  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Systems > Process
  2. Medicine > Drugs > Alcohol > Alcohols
  3. Foods > Beverages > Tea > Black Tea
  4. Foods > Beverages > Tea > Green Tea
  5. Nature > Matter > Atoms > Oxygen

Related Keywords

    * Acetaldehyde * Acetic * Alcohol * Alcohols * Aldehydes * Catalyst * Chemical * Chemical Oxidation * Compound * Compounds * Copper Deposits * Electrons * Enzymes * Fatty * Fermentation * Further Oxidation * Glucose Oxidation * Heated * Leaves * Methionine * Molecular Oxygen * Nadh * Nadh Oxidation * Oolong Tea * Oxidation Number * Oxidation Process * Oxidation Reactions * Oxidation State * Oxidation States * Oxygen * Partial Oxidation * Primary Alcohol * Primary Alcohols * Process * Processes * Processing * Product * Production * Reactions * Reduction * Secondary Alcohols * Secondary Mineral * Substances * Sulfur * Tea * Teas * Tertiary Alcohols * Young Leaves
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