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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > European Union > Poland > Poles > Arctic > Pytheas   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
PYTHEAS
GREAT BRITAIN
VOYAGE
ANCIENT GREEK
PYTHEAS TRAVELLED
NORTH
PYTHEAS RETURNED
TIN
OBSERVATIONS
STRABO
ORPHEUS
VISITED
DAYS
BRITTANY
NIKKO
CHAPTER
START
JOURNEY
ROMAN
CREW
LINE
AMBER
MAIN
SCOTLAND
DEGREES
SIMON
BRITISH ISLES
RETURNED
RECONSTRUCTED
EXPLORER
DESCRIBED
PLACE
PYTHEAS SAILED
SAYS
BRITAIN
FACE
NEVER
TIDES
PROBABLY
REPORT
CHECK
PYTHEAS VISITED
TRAVELS
REPORTED
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Pytheas"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. Pytheas is the first known scientific visitor and reporter of the arctic.
  2. Pytheas was not the first person to sail the seas around Britain.
  3. Pytheas is the source of some scanty information respecting Ierne and Thule.
  4. Pytheas was a charlatan just because a professional geographer.
  5. Pytheas was also the first among the Greeks.

Pytheas

  1. So far, the case for Newgrange being Pytheas’ temple of Apollo seems unconvincing to say the least, but there is worse to come.
  2. Pytheas also said that this temple, besides being spherical, vaulted or round, was “decorated with many offerings”.
  3. However, Stonehenge possesses another quality that would have been of enormous interest to a Greek observer such as Pytheas.
  4. Post a question or answer questions about "Pytheas" at WikiAnswers.
  5. Indeed Pytheas himself probably selected it on this account for his new emporium.

Great Britain

  1. Pytheas estimated the circumference of Great Britain within 2.5% of modern estimates.
  2. Pytheas visited an island six days sailing north of Great Britain, called Thule.
  3. After completing his survey of Great Britain, Pytheas travelled to the shallows on the continental North Sea coast.

Voyage

  1. The start of Pytheas's voyage is already a mystery.
  2. Other takes on Pytheas' voyage include the rather uninformed view that his trip was entirely mythical (I've seen the same said of Marco Polo's sojourn).
  3. The start of Pytheas's voyage is unknown.
  4. Quibbling about this distance Strabo complains about Pytheas' portrayal of the exact location of Tartessos.
  5. Historians still debate whether this country was Iceland, the Shetland Islands or Norway, as well as whether Pytheas visited it or only heared of it.

Ancient Greek

  1. The team painstakingly deciphered the works of an ancient Greek mariner named Pytheas of Massilia.
  2. The ancient Greek geographers prior to Pytheas know nothing of them, and assign all the territories now known as Germanic to various Celtic tribes.
  3. According to Cunliffe’s (2001) book on the voyage of the ancient Greek explorer Pytheas, early mariners navigated using a text called a periplus.

Pytheas Travelled

  1. Pytheas could have travelled any perimeter between that number and Diodorus'.
  2. Pytheas also studied the tides, and determined the exact location of the North Pole in the sky.
  3. Pytheas travelled to Cornwall, important because it was the main source of tin, and studied the production and processing of tin.

North

  1. Roseman has collected the sometimes controversial fragments of Pytheas of Massilia relating to Greek exploration of the North Sea.
  2. After completing his survey of Britain, Pytheas travelled to the Shallows on the continental North Sea coast.
  3. Cunliffe shows how in his time Pytheas was cited as an authority on the lands of the north.
  4. It’s known that Pytheas kept track of how far north he was by using a sundial and measuring the length of its shadow.
  5. Pytheas did count because he was a Greek from the city of Massalia, modern day Marseilles, who tried to go as far north as he could.

Pytheas Returned

  1. The fact that Pytheas returned from the vicinity of the Baltic favors Procopius's view.
  2. Longitude was beyond Pytheas and his peers, but it was not of as great a consequence, because ships seldom strayed out of sight of land.
  3. In other, even more speculative interpretations, Pytheas returned north and the Tanais is not the Don but is a northern river, such as the Elbe river.
  4. Pytheas may have returned the way he came; or by land, following the Rhine and Rh--ne rivers.

Tin

  1. Pytheas may have returned the way he came; or by land, following the Rhine and Rh--ne rivers.
  2. Pytheas sailed from Brittany to Belerium (Land's End) in Cornwall, the southwestern tip of Britain, which was the source of tin.
  3. From Booklist Although now lost, Pytheas' On the Ocean, an account of his 350 B.C. voyage to Britain, was excerpted by ancient authors.
  4. While, ostensibly, his purpose was to bring back a load of tin for profit, Pytheas had the heart and mind of a true explorer.
  5. In the 4th century BC the Greek explorer Pytheas traveled through northwest Europe, and circled the British Isles.

Observations

  1. According to the observations and calculations of Pytheas, as long as was directed to the North so much bigger became their days at summer months.
  2. Pytheas's astronomical observations contributed significantly to the development of mathematical geography.

Strabo

  1. Among them, Polybius and Strabo accused Pytheas of documenting a fictitious journey he could never have funded.
  2. Strabo accepted the narrow band of habitation theory, and rejected the accounts of Hanno and Pytheas as fables.
  3. The Roman geographer Strabo and the Roman historian Polybius, for instance, questioned whether Pytheas even made the voyage at all.
  4. The question of the location of Pytheas' Thule remains.
  5. Pytheas, however, rightly knows what is now Scotland as part of Britain, land of the Picts, even though north of Ierne.

Orpheus

  1. Columbia Encyclopedia: Pytheas ( p--th ' ----s) , Greek mariner and geographer, fl.
  2. We can no longer be certain of Massalia---s security.--- Pytheas stood and quietly listened to the Colonel and nodded.
  3. The Colonel shook his head, countering Pytheas--- points with substantial intelligence evidencing his conclusions over the Commander.
  4. Pytheas decided to find these islands on his own, to locate the fabled sources of tin and to search for new deposits.
  5. Pytheas--- eyebrows slightly rose as he took a deep breath and turned to exchange a nearly imperceptible look with Orpheus.

Visited

  1. Pytheas visited an island six days sailing north of Britain, called Thule.
  2. Cunliffe can’t help but wonder if Pytheas visited Le Yaudet, an archaeological site he has been working on.

Days

  1. Pytheas reported only days' sail.
  2. Earlier[ 46] Pliny says that a large island of three days' sail from the Scythian coast called Balcia by Xenophon of Lampsacus is called Basilia by Pytheas.

Brittany

  1. Pytheas sailed from Brittany to Belerium (Land's End) in Cornwall, the southwestern tip of Britain, which was the source of tin.
  2. Strabo discounts the existence of a peninsula where Brittany is and ridicules Pytheas for saying there is.

Nikko

  1. Pytheas looked briefly at Nikko, who stoically sat awaiting the briefing.
  2. After throwing Orpheus a sharp glance, Nikko turned his gaze back to Pytheas.

Chapter

  1. It’s worth sticking with, because it’s the final chapter which reveals the romance of Pytheas.
  2. In chapter six Cunliffe gives his opinion on the location of Ultima Thule, the northernmost point of Pytheas’s world.

Start

  1. The start of Pytheas's voyage is unknown.
  2. The start of Pytheas's voyage is already a mystery.
  3. Start your search on Pytheas.

Journey

  1. Granted, Pytheas' journey occured some 2,300 years ago so source material is spotty.
  2. Yet Cunliffe is eager to show that modern mapping vindicates Pytheas and that there is no reason not to assume he made this journey.

Roman

  1. The Roman geographer Strabo and the Roman historian Polybius, for instance, questioned whether Pytheas even made the voyage at all.
  2. Pliny gives the circuitus reported by Pytheas as 4875 Roman miles.

Crew

  1. Massalia needs a ship and crew to make calculated risks to better the City---s chance of survival.--- Pytheas paused, and the men looked up.
  2. Incredibly as this may have been to Pytheas and his crew, who had probably never seen a whale before, such pods of whales are common to those waters.

Line

  1. The parallel running through that mouth also passes through Celtica and is Pytheas' base line.
  2. Strabo's angular report of this line as being at 24-- may well be based on a tangent known to Pytheas, but he does not say that.

Amber

  1. Pytheas witnesses to the amber of the Baltic, and says nothing, so far as we know, of British amber.
  2. During this or a second voyage Pytheas entered the Baltic, discovered the coasts where amber is obtained and re-turned to the Mediterranean.

Main

  1. The large square cloth sail was unfurled and whipping in the northerly winds as Pytheas stepped out onto the main deck.
  2. Pytheas travelled to Cornwall, important because it was the main source of tin, and studied the production and processing of tin.

Scotland

  1. Pytheas continues on to Scotland and perhaps Iceland or Norway.
  2. Pytheas then traveled along the eastern littoral of the Irish Sea until he reached the northern tip of Scotland.

Degrees

  1. Strabo uses the degrees, based on Hipparchus.[ 49] Neither say that Pytheas did.
  2. Ptolemy supposes this to have been the Thule of Pytheas, Pliny places it within three degrees of the pole, Eratosthenes under the polar circle.

Simon

  1. It reminded Pytheas more of a trial than a Council meeting.
  2. Standing, Pytheas and Orpheus strode across the courtyard to Simon.
  3. Pytheas looked askance at Orpheus, both men speculating the possible the outcome of Simon---s meeting with his father.
  4. With a crooked grin, Pytheas nudged Orpheus and motioned with his head to the entrance where Simon stood searching for his commanding officers.
  5. Pytheas had his own sources of intelligence that made him believe that the Council knew more than they were letting on.

British Isles

  1. In the 4th century BC the Greek explorer Pytheas traveled through northwest Europe, and circled the British Isles.
  2. Pytheas crossed the waters northward from Berrice, in the north of the British Isles, but whether to starboard, larboard, or straight ahead is not known.
  3. It was their presence which made Greeks like Ptolemy and Pytheas refer to the British Isles as "the Pretanic Isles".

Returned

  1. Pytheas may have returned the way he came; or by land, following the Rhine and Rh--ne rivers.
  2. By the time he returned home, Pytheas, even by conservative estimates, had traveled over 7,500 miles (12,070 km).

Reconstructed

  1. From these snippets, Cunliffe has reconstructed Pytheas' exploit.
  2. No full copy of Pytheas's book survives so his voyage has to be reconstructed from quotations in other writers.

Explorer

  1. They may be the history of someone other than Pytheas but the synthesis into a single voyage of a single explorer whose work has been lost is fictional.
  2. The explorer, Fridtjof Nansen, in an article on the topic[ 18] explains this apparent fantasy of Pytheas as a mistake of Timaeus.

Described

  1. Pytheas described his travels in a periplus titled On the Ocean (--------- ------- ----------------).
  2. Pytheas described his travels in a book On the Ocean (Περι του Οκεανυ).
  3. It was an island discovered and described (c.310 BC) by the Greek navigator Pytheas and variously identified with Iceland, Norway, and the Shetland Islands.

Place

  1. This may be the place where the sun went to bed according to Pytheas.
  2. But archaeology proves Greco-Celtic commerce existed, sealing Pytheas' place --albeit an elusive one--in discovery annals.

Pytheas Sailed

  1. However, Pytheas only sailed 560 stadia per day for a total of 23800, which in Nansen's view is consistent with 700 stadia per degree.
  2. Pytheas sailed northward with the intent of locating the Arctic Circle and exploring the "frigid zone" to the north of it at the extreme of the earth.
  3. The first three chapters treat of Pytheas and other travelers and geographers of classical antiquity.
  4. Pytheas sailed from Brittany to Belerium (Land's End) in Cornwall, the southwestern tip of Britain, which was the source of tin.

Says

  1. Pytheas says Thule was an agricultural country that produced honey.
  2. Pytheas witnesses to the amber of the Baltic, and says nothing, so far as we know, of British amber.
  3. This disbelief may also be the cause of alteration of Pytheas' data.
  4. If Pytheas did wander over the island he could hardly have avoided it.
  5. Diodorus (or Pytheas) says that these Hyperboreans had a distinct language and were friendly to Greeks.

Britain

  1. The account is, that Pytheas departed from Marseilles, coasted Spain, France, and the east or north-east side of Britain, as far as its northern extremity.
  2. Pytheas certainly reached Britain, and continued to the far northern kingdom of Thule (probably Norway).

Face

  1. Speaking of newborns, Pytheas noted Simon---s young face.
  2. Is that understood?--- The Colonel took a step forward, a mere inch from Pytheas--- face, ---And, I will say it only once Commander.

Never

  1. The issue of what he did say can never be settled until more fragments of Pytheas turn up.
  2. Strabo (and Diodorus Siculus) never saw Pytheas' work (says Nansen), but they and others read of him in Timaeus.
  3. Among them, Polybius and Strabo accused Pytheas of documenting a fictitious journey he could never have funded.

Tides

  1. However imperfect or imperfectly related the viewpoint, Pytheas was the first to associate the tides to the phases of the moon.
  2. Like Pytheas, Posidonius believed the tide is caused by the Moon.
  3. Pytheas travelled to the British Isles about 325 B.C. and seems to be the first to have related spring tides to the phase of the Moon.
  4. Pytheas sailed past the mouth of the Elbe, noting the amber cast upon the shore by the high spring tides.

Probably

  1. It is in fact the latitude of Trondheim, where Pytheas probably made land.
  2. The consensus has been that he probably took his information from Pytheas through Timaeaus.
  3. Pytheas (as related by Hipparchus) probably cited the place in Celtica where he first made land.

Report

  1. This report suggests that Pytheas was there in the early Spring, as he encountered frosts but not blizzards, drifts and frozen bodies of water.
  2. A second passage from Diodorus has gained some repute as a possible report of Pytheas' observation of the monuments at Stonehenge.

Check

  1. Last check: 2007-09-17) Pytheas gelangte m--glicherweise durch die Stra--e von Gibraltar.
  2. Last check: 2007-09-17) Pytheas was the first Graeco-Roman to describe the Midnight Sun, the aurora and Polar ice, and the first to mention Germanic tribes.

Pytheas Visited

  1. Pytheas estimated the circumference of Great Britain within 2.5% of modern estimates.
  2. If Pytheas had visited the place he should have verified it personally.
  3. Pytheas visited an island six days sailing north of Britain, called Thule.
  4. Polybius adds that Pytheas said he traversed the whole of Britain on foot,[ 19] of which he, Polybius, is skeptical.
  5. Pytheas visited Britan, where tin was traded, and possibly Ireland, the Hebrides, and the Orkneys.

Travels

  1. The island of Thule is described in the account of the travels of Pytheas of Marseilles, who visited it ca.
  2. Pytheas described his travels in a book On the Ocean (Περι του Οκεανυ).
  3. Voyage Pytheas described his travels in a '' periplus '' titled ''On the Ocean'' (--------- ------- ----------------).

Reported

  1. Pytheas reported that the pole was an empty space at the corner of a quadrangle, the other three sides of which were marked by stars.
  2. Pytheas of Massilia reported that he found such a condition on the isle of Thule.

Categories

  1. European Union > Poland > Poles > Arctic
  2. Glossaries > Glossary of Geographers /
  3. Books about "Pytheas" in Amazon.com

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  Originally created: September 10, 2007.
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