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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Alkali Metals > Sodium   Michael Charnine

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  1. Sodium is a soft, bright, silvery metal which floats on water.
  2. Sodium is the fourth most abundant element on earth, comprising about 2.6% of the earth's crust; it is the most abundant of the alkali group of metals.
  3. Sodium is also the principal cation in seawater, although the concentration there is about 3.8 times what it is normally in extracellular body fluids.
  4. Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in animals and humans.
  5. Sodium is a soft, waxy, silvery reactive metal belonging to the alkali metals that is abundant in natural compounds (especially halite).


  1. Central oxytocin mediates inhibition of sodium appetite by naloxone in hypovolemic rats.
  2. When dietary sodium is low, aldosterone reduces the loss of sodium in urine appropriately.
  3. Sodium deficiency leads to a variety of autonomic and neuroendocrine changes, including increases in circulating AII and aldosterone.
  4. Based upon their sodium appetite-specific activation, the HSD2 neurones clearly integrate stimuli associated with prolonged sodium deficiency.

Sodium Chloride

  1. It is now obtained commercially by the electrolysis of absolutely dry fused sodium chloride.
  2. Comments: Halite, sodium chloride (NaCl), is the most abundant of the EVAPORITE minerals.
  3. The most common compound is sodium chloride (table salt), but it occurs in many other minerals, such as soda niter, cryolite, amphibole, zeolite, etc.

Alkali Metal

  1. This alkali metal is also a component of sodium chloride (NaCl) which is vital to life.
  2. Sodium makes up about 2.6% by weight of the Earth's crust making it the fourth most abundant element overall and the most abundant alkali metal.
  3. Alkali metal is a term that refers to six elements: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).


  1. Restriction of sodium is also important, as is maintainance of dietary potassium.
  2. When dietary sodium is high, urinary sodium increases to excrete the excess.


  1. Sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions.
  2. Interestingly, sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, but the ion is not needed by plants.


  1. Sodium is essential for life but rarely deficient in diets; high intake is linked to hypertension.
  2. Approximately 75 percent of sodium in Western diets originates from processed foods.
  3. About one-third to one-half of all hypertensive people are salt-sensitive and will benefit from a low-sodium diet.


  1. Lithium reacts with water less readily than sodium.
  2. Sodium hexafluoro aluminate ( cryolite), is used in the electrolysis of aluminium.
  3. As early as 1860, Kirchhoff and Bunsen noted the high sensitivity that a flame test for sodium could give.
  4. Sodium quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as kerosene.
  5. It cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere and contact with water and other substances with which sodium reacts should be avoided.


  1. Used as a light filter in low pressure sodium vapor lamps.
  2. There are thirteen isotopes of sodium that have been recognized.
  3. Sodium is relatively abundant in stars and the D spectral lines of this element are among the most prominent in star light.
  4. Under extreme pressure, sodium departs from common melting behavior.
  5. Low-pressure sodium lamps give a distinctive yellow-orange light which consists primarily of the twin sodium D lines.


  1. Few common fire extinguishers work on sodium fires.
  2. Water, of course, exacerbates sodium fires, as do water-based foams.
  3. Lithium fires are difficult to extinguish, requiring special chemicals designed to smother them (see sodium for details).

High Blood

  1. Severely dehydrated persons, such as people rescued from ocean or desert survival situations, usually have very high blood sodium concentrations.
  2. Intracerebral sodium concentration.  The sodium concentration of the CSF is directly related to that of the blood plasma ( Doi et al.
  3. Excess sodium intake results in edema, high blood pressure, potassium deficiency, and liver and kidney disease.


  1. High sodium intake interferes with calcium retention.
  2. Put simply, normal growth requires the ingestion and retention of sodium.
  3. Double immunolabeling in the SON and PVN. The pattern of double labeling cells in the PVN after sodium ingestion is shown in Fig.


  1. Relative loss of body water will cause sodium concentration to rise higher than normal, a condition known as hypernatremia.
  2. Rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis in vitro: responses to changes in sodium concentration.


  1. With oxygen and a metallic element, carbon forms many important carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (limestone) and sodium carbonate (soda).
  2. Sodium Na From the English, " soda ", because of relation about caustic soda, soda ash, baking soda and other Sodium compounds.
  3. Other sources of sodium are not as well recognized: condiments, sauces, baking soda, baking powder, and bread.

Sodium Hydroxide

  1. A mercury cell electrolysis and hydrolysis of the amalgam with sodium hydroxide leads to sodium gallate.
  2. In many respects, potassium and sodium are chemically similar, although organisms in general, and animal cells in particular, treat them very differently.
  3. This method is less expensive than the previous method of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide.
  4. An exception to the periodic law is regarding sodium's density.
  5. Applications Sodium in its metallic form is an essential component in the making of esters and in the manufacture of organic compounds.


  1. Sodium imparts an intense yellow color to flames.
  2. After a while, it glowed a bright yellow and showed a strong sodium line that disappeared only after 10 minutes.
  3. In air, the bright silvery luster of freshly exposed sodium will rapidly tarnish.
  4. When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame it will contribute a bright yellow.


  1. Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element.
  2. Sodium is much more reactive than magnesium; a reactivity which can be further enhanced due to sodium's much lower melting point.
  3. The metals which can accomplish this are sodium and lithium, with sodium being the most abundant and most commonly used.

Never Found

  1. Sodium, like every reactive element, is never found free in nature.
  2. Notable Characteristics Like the other alkali metals, sodium is a soft, light-weight, silvery white, reactive element that is never found unbound in nature.

Room Temperature

  1. At around 100 gigapascals, sodium will melt at near room temperature.
  2. The article highlights the creation of liquid sodium at room temperature.
  3. At room temperature, sodium metal is so soft that it can be easily cut with a knife.

Sodium Salt

  1. For example, sodium has the chemical symbol 'Na' after the Latin natrium.
  2. In medieval Europe a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used as a headache remedy.
  3. Compounds of fluorine, including sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF 2) and sodium MFP, are used in toothpaste to prevent dental cavities.
  4. This requires some herbivores to obtain their sodium from salt licks and other mineral sources.
  5. Hard soaps are generally sodium salt of certain fatty acids (potassium produces softer or liquid soaps).


  1. Sodium floats in water and decomposes it releasing hydrogen and forming hydroxide.
  2. Sodium floats in water, as well as decomposing it to release hydrogen gas and hydroxide ion s.


  1. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Alkali Metals
  2. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Chemistry
  3. Encyclopedia of Keywords > Nature > Matter > Materials
  4. Nature > Natural Resources > Minerals > Metals
  5. Technology > Energy > Heat > Temperature
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  Originally created: May 07, 2008.
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