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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Muscle > Sphincter   Michael Charnine

Keywords and Sections
CARDIAC SPHINCTER
EXTERNAL SPHINCTER
EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER
MUSCULAR VALVE
SPHINCTER PUPILLAE
SUSPECTED SPHINCTER
ANAL SPHINCTER MUSCLES
ANAL SPHINCTER MUSCLE
PYLORIC SPHINCTER
ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER
SPHINCTER MUSCLES
FAILURE
TRANSPLANTATION
UPWARD
INCIDENCE
EXIT
DEFECATION
FREQUENCY
FLUID
VOMITING
BLADDER NECK
PROSTATE
PUPIL
STENOSIS
COMMON
DIAGNOSIS
END
CLOSED
VOLUNTARY CONTROL
URINE
FURTHER
VOLUNTARY
INVOLUNTARY
ABNORMALITY
CASES
PASSAGE
VALVE
CATHETER
LUMEN
BRAIN
BLOCKAGE
NERVES
LARYNX
ENZYMES
RELAXED
Review of Short Phrases and Links

    This Review contains major "Sphincter"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.

Definitions

  1. The sphincter is normally closed, opening only in response to a meal so that digestive juices can enter the duodenum and mix with the food for digestion.
  2. This sphincter is usually tightly closed and normally opens only when food passes from the esophagus into the stomach.
  3. The anal sphincter is a muscle that contracts to prevent stool from leaving the rectum.
  4. When the sphincter is closed, secreted bile is shunted into the gallbladder.

Cardiac Sphincter

  1. The cardiac sphincter prevents food from passing back to the esophagus.
  2. The cardiac sphincter prevents reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus.

External Sphincter

  1. The internal and external sphincter allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.

External Urethral Sphincter

  1. Transitional membranous urethra A small (1 or 2 cm) portion passing through the external urethral sphincter.
  2. The external urethral sphincter (muscle) is located in the urogenital diaphragm (as for the female urethra).

External Anal Sphincter

  1. The external anal sphincter is much stronger to the touch than the internal.
  2. Point where fibers from pelvis unite with those of external anal sphincter.

Muscular Valve

  1. With gravity's help, a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, keeps stomach acid in the stomach.

Sphincter Pupillae

  1. Due to lost innervation of the Sphincter Pupillae.
  2. The ciliary muscle, like the sphincter pupillae, is supplied by the ciliary ganglion.

Suspected Sphincter

  1. Correlation of basal sphincter pressures measured from the bile duct and the pancreatic duct in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.
  2. Suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) was the indication for the ERCP in 378 patients (33.9%).
  3. Comparison of secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance pancreatography and manometry results in patients with suspected sphincter of oddi dysfunction.

Anal Sphincter Muscles

  1. If the fistula is complex and goes through both anal sphincter muscles, more than one procedure may be necessary.

Anal Sphincter Muscle

  1. Severe or chronic prolapse requires surgery to strengthen and tighten the anal sphincter muscle or to repair the prolapsed lining.

Pyloric Sphincter

  1. Locate the cardiac sphincter at the junction of the stomach and esophagus, and the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the stomach and small intestine.
  2. Pyloric Sphincter (py-LOR-ik SFEENK-tur) The muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.
  3. In pyloric stenosis the muscles of the stomach around the pyloric sphincter become enlarged and cause the pylorus to narrow.

Esophageal Sphincter

  1. They are the: 1) Cardiac or esophageal sphincter, dividing the tract above, and 2) Pyloric sphincter, dividing the stomach from the small intestine.
  2. A circular muscle called the esophageal sphincter separates the esophagus and the stomach.
  3. Digastric Elevates hyoid; depresses mandible - Extremely important for opening of Upper Esophageal Sphincter.

Sphincter Muscles

  1. Inhaling nitrites relaxes smooth muscles throughout the body, including the sphincter muscles of the anus and the vagina.
  2. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening to let stool pass out of the body.
  3. Childbirth is one of the most common causes of damage to the sphincter muscles, and it is a leading cause of bowel incontinence.

Failure

  1. Table 5. Causes for failure to achieve symptom relief after biliary sphincterotomy in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.
  2. Achalasia is characterized by failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and absence of progressive peristalsis in the esophageal body.
  3. In achalasia, which means "failure to relax," the esophageal sphincter remains contracted.

Transplantation

  1. We conclude that sphincter of Oddi function usually remains normal following liver transplantation with choledochocholedochostomy.
  2. Effect of octreotide on human sphincter of Oddi motility following liver transplantation.

Upward

  1. And since smoking damage the esophageal sphincter, the acidic contents of the stomach tend to flow upward and down into the lower portion of the esophagus.

Incidence

  1. The reported incidence of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction following orthotopic liver transplantation has ranged from 3% to 7%.

Exit

  1. It leads to the duodenum, where its exit is guarded by a sphincter muscle.

Defecation

  1. External links hemorrhoid.net Shafik A (1976). "A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation.

Frequency

  1. Frequency of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in patients with previously normal sphincter of Oddi manometry studies.
  2. Increased frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation induced by gastric distention in reflux patients with hiatal hernia.

Fluid

  1. The fluid flows downward through the duct and eventually passes a muscular valve called the Sphincter of Oddi.

Vomiting

  1. Instructions Step 1: Pay close attention to an increased amount of saliva, vomiting, choking, anemia, abdominal pain and spasms of the anal sphincter.
  2. If the upper esophageal sphincter opens, contents are then expelled from the mouth (vomiting).

Bladder Neck

  1. T4a: Invades bladder neck, external sphincter, or rectum.

Prostate

  1. During orgasm, a human male experiences rapid, rhythmic contractions of the anal sphincter, the prostate, and the muscles of the penis.

Pupil

  1. The stroma connects a sphincter muscle (sphincter pupillae), which contracts the pupil, and a set of dilator muscles (dilator pupillae) which open it.
  2. GVE (Parasympathetic) innervation is to: Ciliary Muscles (for Accommodation) Sphincter of the Pupil (constriction, or miosis).
  3. The dilator pupillae dilates the pupil; its action is antagonistic to the sphincter pupillae.

Stenosis

  1. It can provide useful information on the rare disorder of the sphincter function (stenosis, spasm, and hypotonia) at the lower end of the bile duct.
  2. In contrast, SO stenosis refers to a structural alteration of the sphincter, probably from an inflammatory process with subsequent fibrosis.

Common

  1. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is also common in patients with acute recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis.
  2. Bowel incontinence becomes more common with advancing age as the muscles that control bowel movements (anal sphincter muscles) weaken.
  3. The most common cause of fecal incontinence in otherwise healthy women is damage to the anal sphincter(s) during childbirth.

Diagnosis

  1. On manometry, diagnosis of a sphincter of Oddi stenosis should lead to division of the sphincter.
  2. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: diagnosis and treatment.
  3. Sphincter of Oddi manometry is essential in making a diagnosis of abnormal motility of the sphincter.

End

  1. Swelling of the tissue of the anal sphincter, the muscle at the end of the colon that controls defecation.

Closed

  1. GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) fails to remain completely closed.

Voluntary Control

  1. The external urethral sphincter is a striated muscle that allows voluntary control over urination.
  2. However, relaxation of the sphincter is also in part a learned response under voluntary control.

Urine

  1. The sphincter urethrae, or urethral sphincter, controlling the exit of urine from the body.
  2. A full bladder stimulates sensory nerves in the bladder wall that relax the sphincter and allow release of the urine.
  3. This can cause dribbling of urine (incontinence), due to decreased sphincteric action of the sphincter urethrae muscle in the UG diaphragm.

Further

  1. They were further investigated with sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM), quantitative cholescintigraphy (QC), and long-term clinical follow-up.

Voluntary

  1. The external urethral sphincter is voluntary, and relaxes with voluntary stimuli from the cerebral cortex.

Involuntary

  1. Internal Anal Sphincter Muscle: Smooth, involuntary, innervated by the pelvic splanchnic nerves.

Abnormality

  1. Abnormality in the function of lower sphincter can allow the food to regurgitate upwards causing bad breath.
  2. Finally, patients often complain of diarrhea when the problem is an abnormality of anal sphincter tone.
  3. Doctors are uncertain regarding the root cause of the pain, but suspect it may be triggered by an abnormality in the Sphincter of Oddi.

Cases

  1. Gallstone pancreatitis, in most cases, is caused by gallstones passing into the bile duct and temporarily lodging at the sphincter of Oddi.
  2. In some cases the pressure in the stomach rises higher than the sphincter can withstand.
  3. Medications however do not improve the function of the lower esophageal sphincter and in some cases surgery may be useful for persistent symptoms.

Passage

  1. At the junction of the esophagus and stomach, there is a ringlike muscle, called the lower esophageal sphincter, closing the passage between the two organs.
  2. The back of the stomach narrows to a circular valve, the pyloric sphincter, which regulates the passage of partially digested food into the intestines.

Valve

  1. This backflow occurs when the valve between the lower end of the esophagus and the stomach (the lower esophageal sphincter) does not close tightly enough.
  2. The valve performs like a sphincter to regulate substances entering and leaving the gallbladder.
  3. In effect, the sphincter acts like a valve.

Catheter

  1. Once the instrument is positioned near the Sphincter of Oddi, a catheter is passed through it.

Lumen

  1. The sphincter of Oddi controls the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the lumen of the duodenum.
  2. As the bile duct traverses the duodenal wall, its wall acquires the choledochal sphincter (of Oddi) and its lumen becomes narrowed.

Brain

  1. Achalasia is caused by degeneration of the nerve cells that normally signal the brain to relax the esophageal sphincter.

Blockage

  1. Treatment is usually directed towards reducing the degree of blockage caused by the lower esophageal sphincter.

Nerves

  1. Nerves carry signals from the brain to the bladder and sphincter.
  2. This happens because achalasia affects the nerves that control the sphincter muscles.
  3. These nerves enter the posterior aspect of the eyeball to innervate the sphincter pupillae and ciliaris muscles.

Larynx

  1. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing and is pulled open by the forward movement of the hyoid bone and larynx.

Enzymes

  1. When stones block the sphincter of Oddi, the enzymes overwhelm the inhibitors.

Relaxed

  1. When this sphincter doesn't close properly or is relaxed enough, food, liquid and acid can reflux back up into the esophagus causing heartburn.
  2. When relaxed, a sphincter allows materials to pass through the opening.
  3. It is imperative that the external and internal sphincter muscles that regulate the anal opening be completely relaxed during bowel movement.

Categories

  1. Muscle
  2. Pancreatic Duct
  3. Bile Duct
  4. Humans > Medicine > Anatomy > Esophagus
  5. Duodenum

Related Keywords

    * Achalasia * Ampulla * Anal Sphincter * Anus * Associated * Bile * Bile Duct * Bile Ducts * Bladder * Bowel * Bowel Movement * Causing * Cholecystectomy * Cholecystokinin * Chronic Pancreatitis * Chyme * Common Bile Duct * Contraction * Cystic Duct * Duct * Duodenum * Endoscope * Endoscopic Sphincterotomy * Ercp * Esophagus * Fissures * Food * Gallbladder * Gallstone * Gall Bladder * Heartburn * Intestine * Les * Lower Esophageal Sphincter * Manometry * Meperidine * Morphine * Muscle * Muscles * Muscular * Oddi * Oddi Dysfunction * Oddi Manometry * Opening * Pancreas * Pancreatic * Pancreatic Duct * Pancreatic Ducts * Pancreatic Duct Sphincter * Pancreatic Sphincter * Pancreatitis * Papilla * Patients * Procedure * Rectum * Reflux * Relaxation * Risk * Scarring * Small Intestine * Smooth Muscle * Sod * Spasm * Sphincterotomy * Sphincter Muscle * Stomach * Study * Urethra * Vater
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  Short phrases about "Sphincter"
  Originally created: July 27, 2008.
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