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  Encyclopedia of Keywords > Encyclopedia of Finance. > Technology > Energy > Electron > Spin   Michael Charnine

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    This Review contains major "Spin"- related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.


  1. Spin (quantum number S) is a vector quantity that represents the "intrinsic" angular momentum of a particle.
  2. Spin is an intrinsic property of elementary particles, and its direction is an important degree of freedom.
  3. Spin is a completely quantum mechanical property of a particle and cannot be explained in any way by classical physics. (Web site)
  4. Spin is the name for the angular momentum carried by a particle. (Web site)
  5. Spin(8) is the spin covering of the rotations in 8-dimensional space, the space of the octonions. (Web site)
  6. SPIN is a collection of RDF vocabularies enabling the use of SPARQL to define constraints and inference rules on Semantic Web models.
  7. SPIN is a software package developed in the Bell Labs formal specification and verification group. (Web site)
  8. Spin, the nucleus and elementary particles Angular momentum, spin and selection rules, identical particles, quantum statistics.
  9. Spin was the last quantum number to be accepted. (Web site)


  1. The graviton (spin 2) has been proposed to mediate gravity in a theory of quantum gravity.
  2. It is widely believed that in a theory of quantum gravity, gravity would be mediated by a massless spin 2 particle which is known as the graviton. (Web site)


  1. A COMPLETE SET OF ELECTRON PROPERTIES The origin of spin completes the properties of the electron.
  2. The intrinsic properties of photons, such as charge, mass and spin, are determined by the properties of this gauge symmetry. (Web site)
  3. Elementary particles have far too many properties - such as spin, charge, colour, parity and hypercharge - to be truly elementary. (Web site)


  1. Furthermore, the magnitude of the spin (a direction-independent quantity) is uniquely determined by the type of particle. (Web site)
  2. As was the case with ordinary angular momentum, we can describe spin angular momentum in terms of its magnitude, and its component along a given axis.
  3. The magnitude of the spin angular momentum will determine the number of possible values its component may have along a given axis. (Web site)


  1. By pulling in her arms, she reduces her moment of inertia, causing her to spin faster (by the conservation of angular momentum).
  2. The moment one observer measures the spin of one particle, he knows the spin of the other. (Web site)

Integer Spin

  1. The modern view on this is that photons are, by virtue of their integer spin, bosons (as opposed to fermions with half-integer spin). (Web site)
  2. Boson Distinguished from fermions, which are matter particles, by their integer spin, bosons are force carrier particles such as the photon, for example.
  3. All particles have either integer spin or half-integer spin (in units of the reduced Planck constant ħ). (Web site)


  1. Bosons have integer spin - gauge bosons all have spin 1.
  2. In particle physics, bosons are particles with an integer spin, as opposed to fermions which have half-integer spin. (Web site)
  3. The main difference between mesons and baryons is that mesons have integer spin (thus are bosons) while baryons are fermions (half-integer spin).


  1. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons.
  2. The vacuum has, implicitly, all of the properties that a particle may have: spin, or polarization in the case of light, energy, and so on. (Web site)
  3. Instruction: Take a look at the values of spin and rest energy for each particle. (Web site)


  1. The spin operator has two eigenvalues:, which corresponds for two eigenstates - spin up and spin down.
  2. Then S z has two eigenstates - spin up and spin down. (Web site)
  3. The problem is to find the eigenstates of the total total spin operators and and identify the allowed total spin states.

Wolfgang Pauli

  1. When the idea of electron spin was first introduced in 1925, even Wolfgang Pauli had trouble accepting Ralph Kronig's model.
  2. Wolfgang Pauli was the first to propose the concept of spin, but he did not name it.
  3. Wolfgang Pauli was possibly the most influential physicist in the theory of spin. (Web site)

Exclusion Principle

  1. In addition to electrons, all known particles having half-integer intrinsic angular momentum, or spin, obey the exclusion principle. (Web site)
  2. Photons, however, are immune to the exclusion principle because their spin is an integer.


  1. Particles and antiparticles generally have the same spin. (Web site)
  2. He is especially famous for his prediction of the magnetic moment and spin of the electron and for the existence of antiparticles.
  3. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. (Web site)

Charge Conjugation

  1. The quantum number s is the spin, which is unaffected by charge conjugation, time reversal or parity. (Web site)


  1. Magnetism in materials like iron is due to a combination of the spin and orbital contributions to the magnetic moment.
  2. Fundamental particles possess properties such as electric charge, spin, mass, magnetism, and other complex characteristics, but are regarded as pointlike. (Web site)
  3. It turns out that for the spin component of the magnetism, relativistic effects make the gyromagnetic ratio a little bigger than twice the obvious value.


  1. In spintronics, information is stored and transmitted using another property of electrons: their spin.
  2. Electronics based on spin transistors is called spintronics, which includes the manipulation of spins in semiconductor devices.


  1. In 1940, Pauli proved the spin-statistics theorem, which states that fermions have half-integer spin and bosons integer spin.
  2. Pauli explains the paramagnetic susceptibility of metals using electron spin and the exclusion principle. (Web site)
  3. In 1940, Pauli proved the '' spin-statistics theorem '', which states that fermion s have half-integer spin and boson s integer spin. (Web site)

Pauli Matrices

  1. Pauli introduced the 2 × 2 Pauli matrices as a basis of spin operators, thus solving the nonrelativistic theory of spin. (Web site)
  2. The Pauli matrices are a vector of three 2x2 matrices that are used as spin operators.


  1. In contrast to orbit al angular momentum, spin is quantized in integer and half-integer units of.
  2. In contrast to orbital angular momentum, spin is quantized in integer and half-integer units of. (Web site)
  3. Mass can be anything from zero to large, but spin is quantized in units of ½h-bar, where h-bar is a constant of Nature known as Planck's constant.

Quantum Number

  1. J = L + S is the total angular momentum, L is the Azimuthal quantum number, S is the Spin quantum number, and M J is the Magnetic quantum number. (Web site)
  2. In particular, the graviton must have a spin quantum number of 2 and no mass, only energy.
  3. According to the Pauli exclusion principal each orbital can be occupied by up to two electrons, which must differ in their spin quantum number. (Web site)


  1. Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin.
  2. A quantity which has both magnitude and direction, such as the spin of a magnetic atom in the Heisenberg model. (Web site)
  3. Antimatter is just like ordinary matter in every way, except that every quantity you can think of (apart from mass and spin), is reversed. (Web site)


  1. The particular form of the electromagnetic interaction specifies that the photon must have spin ±1; thus, its helicity must be. (Web site)
  2. The neutrino has a remarkable property: it has left helicity (its spin is oriented in the direction opposite to its velocity).


  1. The magnitude of its spin is and the component measured along its direction of motion, its helicity, must be. (Web site)
  2. The direction of motion of the axis is such that it causes the direction of spin of the gyro to tend to coincide with that of the impressed torque.
  3. If the spin of a particle has a positive projection on its direction of motion then it is called left-handed; otherwise, it is right-handed. (Web site)


  1. Precession: A change in the direction of the axis of spin of a rotating body. (Web site)
  2. By convention, these three vectors, torque, spin, and precession, are all oriented with respect to each other according to the right-hand rule. (Web site)
  3. The excited wave packet corresponds to a precession of spin and orbital angular momentum around the total angular momentum. (Web site)


  1. All subatomic particles also have a property known as spin, meaning that they rotate on their axes in much the same way that planets such as Earth do. (Web site)
  2. Stars, planets and similar bodies all spin around on their axes (the plural of axis).
  3. In space, nebulae, stars, black holes, and planets all have angular momentum, and they all spin around.

Opposite Direction

  1. To rotate the vehicle in one direction, you spin up the proper wheel in the opposite direction. (Web site)
  2. If she tries to tip it to one side, she starts to spin on the platform in the opposite direction to the rotation of the tire. (Web site)
  3. Max figures out how the attack ring works, so he forces Gabriel to spin in the opposite direction, causing the shredder to destroy itself, defeating Queen.

Spinning Top

  1. A spinning top implies a single given momentum and a drag or torque against the axis of the spin.
  2. The third cycle is due to precession of the spin axis (as in a spinning top) and occurs over a ~23,000 year cycle.
  3. These electrons also possess a quantity known as spin, which is roughly analogous to a spinning top.


  1. Spins include the scratch spin, the sit spin, the camel spin, the layback spin, and a few flying spins.
  2. In order to achieve this boost, the turbocharger uses the exhaust flow from the engine to spin a turbine, which in turn spins an air pump.
  3. The spin of an atom is determined by the spins of its constituent components, and how the spin is distributed and arranged among the sub-atomic components. (Web site)


  1. FIG. 23 illustrates a neutron and the axis and spin orientation used for illustration purposes. (Web site)
  2. Each electron occupies a quantum state that describes its random behavior upon measuring a physical parameter, such as its energy or spin orientation. (Web site)
  3. A field external to the atom may affect the spin orientation of protons within the nucleus. (Web site)

Angular Momentum Vector

  1. If the body is a satellite, then the change in angular momentum vector will result in a change of spin and spin orientation. (Web site)

Magnetic Field

  1. All electrons have a property called "spin," which describes the way they rotate on their axes, generating a magnetic field as they do so. (Web site)
  2. In addition to their orbital movement, the electrons also spin on their axis, thereby creating yet another magnetic field. (Web site)
  3. Large objects like planets or marbles may have angular momentum and a magnetic field because they spin.

Magnetic Dipole Moment

  1. The spin of an electron, combined with its electric charge, results in a magnetic dipole moment and creates a magnetic field. (Web site)
  2. Particles with spin have a magnetic dipole moment; in a magnetic field, each spin can exist in one of a number of distinct states having different energies. (Web site)
  3. The interaction of this magnetic dipole moment with the magnetic moment of the nucleus (due to its spin) leads to hyperfine splitting.

Spin State

  1. When we then subsequently measure the particle's spin along the y-axis, the spin state will now collapse into either or, each with probability.
  2. Following the measurement, the spin state of the particle will collapse into the corresponding eigenstate.
  3. The neutrino could transform into an antineutrino (and vice versa) by flipping the orientation of its spin state. (Web site)

Spin States

  1. Electrons in a magnetic layer naturally are spin polarized in one of two spin states, spin up or spin down, and the majority state determines the spin state. (Web site)
  2. In hand-waving terms, we can talk about the two spin states of a spin ½ as being aligned either with or against the magnetic field.
  3. Because the positron can be polarized, also the momentum distribution for the two spin states in magnetized materials can be obtained. (Web site)

Bose-Einstein Statistics

  1. Particles with integer spin, on the other hand, obey Bose-Einstein statistics, and are known as bosons.
  2. Most physicists speak of Fermi-Dirac statistics for half-integer spin particles and Bose-Einstein statistics for integer spin particles.
  3. Subatomic particle with integral spin that is governed by Bose-Einstein statistics. (Web site)

Integral Spin

  1. Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin.
  2. Mesons, the other subclass of hadrons, have zero or integral spin, obey Bose-Einstein statistics, and are known as bosons. (Web site)
  3. Particles with integral spin (0, 1) are called bosons; those with half spin are fermions. (Web site)


  1. When the gyroscope starts to spin, the vectors of angular momentum and torque are at odds with one another. (Web site)
  2. If you apply a twist to the gyroscope around its axis of rotation, it will either spin faster or slower, depending on which way you twist it.
  3. The spacecraft was designed as a spinning satellite, but its spin rate was controlled by a gyroscope that could be commanded to stop.

Spin Rate

  1. Simplified case when spin rate is much bigger than precession rate, and angular momentum vector is entirely due to spin. (Web site)
  2. To stop the spin and face the arrays toward the Sun, the crew needed to know the spin rate of Mir.
  3. Fretting-induced precession is a purely mechanical process which does not depend on inertia and is not inversely proportional to spin rate. (Web site)

Spin Structures

  1. Similarly to the case of spin structures, one takes a Whitney sum with a trivial line bundle if the manifold is odd dimensional.
  2. Every smooth compact 4-manifold M has Spin c -structures (though most do not have spin structures).
  3. Further reading Something on Spin Structures by Sven-S. Porst is a short introduction to orientation and spin structures for mathematics students. (Web site)

Spin Structure

  1. Yet another definition is that a spin c structure on a manifold N is complex line bundle L over N together with a spin structure on.
  2. A spin structure on a vector bundle allows one to define associated spinor bundles, giving rise to the notion of a spinor in differential geometry.
  3. Spinors on a manifold equipped with a spin structure.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

  1. Bose-Einstein statistics apply only to those particles, called boson s, which have integer values of spin and so do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle. (Web site)
  2. Because of this type of spin, Fermions obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
  3. The property of ferromagnetism is due to the direct influence of two effects from quantum mechanics: spin and the Pauli exclusion principle. (Web site)

Spin Quantum Number

  1. The fourth number represents the "spin" of the electron (spin quantum number).
  2. The gauge boson of electromagnetism is the photon, which has zero mass and a spin quantum number of 1. (Web site)
  3. Spin is thus also negated(note the spin quantum number is the same as it expresses the magnitude alone).

Spin Groups

  1. For example, the spin groups treated in [6] are multivector manifolds, so if (2.1) is applied directly, the point x is a spinor not a vector.

Spin Group

  1. One can remove this sign ambiguity by regarding the space of spinors as a (linear) group representation of the spin group Spin(n).
  2. If we restrict this to the spin group Spin p, q(R) then it splits as the sum of two half spin representations (or Weyl representations) of dimension 2 n -1.
  3. This allows, for example, the theory to include spin connections, in which H is the spin group Spin(n) rather than the orthogonal group O(n).


  1. And therefore the un rotated (non chiral) fermions carry their weak isospin quantum numbers exactly parallel or antiparallel to their spin orientation. (Web site)

Orbital Angular Momentum

  1. The spin of an electron, combined with its orbital angular momentum, results in a magnetic dipole moment and creates a magnetic field. (Web site)
  2. We show that, in addition to electric charge, also squares of orbital angular momentum, spin, and total angular momentum are induced.
  3. Quantum states in which the spin is parallel to the orbital angular momentum are at slightly higher energy than ones in which it is antiparallel. (Web site)


  1. In quantum theory, this defines an even- spin (spin 2 in this case) boson with a rest mass of zero.
  2. Finally, many approaches to quantum gravity postulate a force carrier for gravity, the graviton, which is a boson of spin 2. (Web site)
  3. Any particle, fundamental or composite, with integral spin is called a boson, and any particle with half-integral spin is called a fermion. (Web site)


  1. Mesons have integer (or zero) units of spin, and hence are bosons, which means that they do not obey Pauli exclusion principle rules.
  2. All elementary particles are either bosons or fermions (depending on their spin). (Web site)
  3. All elementary and composite particles are either bosons or fermions, depending on their spin. (Web site)


  1. Encyclopedia of Finance. > Technology > Energy > Electron
  2. Particle
  3. Axis
  4. Direction
  5. Protons

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  Originally created: April 04, 2011.
  Links checked: June 05, 2013.
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